官方APP下載:英語全能特訓(微信小程序版,支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
創辦于2003年
UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
  Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
公眾微信服務號
英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
客服短信:18913948480
客服郵箱:[email protected]
初級VIP會員
全站英語學習資料下載。
¥98元/12個月

#104: Lincoln Needs a Victory

閱讀次數:


VIP會員專享下載:(非VIP會員無權下載!如果想下載,但還不是VIP會員,請點此訂購
下載方式:使用鼠標右鍵(注意是鼠標右鍵?。c擊下面的MP3音頻/MP4視頻鏈接,然后選擇“另存為…”。
MP3節目錄音(英文版) MP3節目錄音(英文版)  MP3節目錄音(中文版) MP3節目錄音(中文版)  PDF節目文稿 PDF節目文稿 
文章正文
同步字幕

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

By the summer of eighteen sixty-two, the American Civil War had been going on for more than a year. The Union had won some battles. The Confederacy had won others. But neither side was in a position to win the war.

到1862年夏天,美國南北戰爭已經打了一年多,交戰雙方各有勝負,但是任何一方都沒有勝算。

President Abraham Lincoln needed a major victory. He was losing the support of both politicians and the public. A major victory would not only help him that way. It also would make it easier for him to make an important announcement.

美國總統亞伯拉罕·林肯需要一場重大勝利,因為他正在失去政界和民眾的支持。一場重大勝利不僅能讓林肯重新贏得支持,而且也能為他準備發布的一項重要宣言創造條件。

For a number of months, he had been planning an announcement about the black people held as slaves in the South. It would come to be known as the Emancipation Proclamation.

林肯總統幾個月來一直在考慮一項關于南方黑奴的宣言,這就是后來著名的解放奴隸宣言。

Today, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe tell about Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation.

VOICE ONE:

General Robert E. Lee
General Robert E. Lee

At the end of August, eighteen sixty-two, Confederate troops under the command of Robert E. Lee defeated the main Union army at Manassas, Virginia. The battlefield was less than fifty kilometers from Washington.

1862年8月底,南軍指揮官羅伯特·李在維吉尼亞州的馬納薩斯擊敗了北軍主力部隊,戰場距離華盛頓只有不到五十公里。

The year before, Confederate troops had sent the Union army fleeing from that same battlefield. Now they had done it again.

一年前,南軍就曾在那里打敗過北軍,一年后再傳捷報。

With this latest victory, General Lee decided on a major move. He would carry the war into the northern states.

在勝利的鼓舞下,李將軍決定大膽行動,把戰火燒到北方去。

Lee took his army of sixty thousand men across the Potomac River into Maryland. He ordered some of his men to capture the Union position at Harpers Ferry. He moved the others to Sharpsburg, a town on the Potomac River.

他率領六萬部隊跨過波托馬克河進入馬里蘭,下令部下奪取哈珀斯費里的北軍據點,其余人直奔波托馬克沿岸小鎮夏普斯伯格。

He put his men into position along Antietam Creek, just outside of town. His lines extended almost three kilometers. There, at Antietam, he would make his stand. He was still close enough to Virginia to withdraw, if the Union force following him proved too strong.

羅伯特·李將軍讓部下在鎮子外面的安蒂特姆河邊安營扎寨,戰線全長近三公里,他選擇這里做為陣地,也是因為這兒離維吉尼亞不遠,如果北軍部隊過于強大的話,可以迅速撤退。

VOICE TWO:

The Battle of Antietam
The Battle of Antietam

The Union force arrived in the middle of September. It did not attack immediately. It spent one full day getting into position along Antietam Creek across from the Confederate army. It attacked the following day at sunrise.

北軍部隊9月中旬到達后,沒有立刻行動,用了整整一天的時間,在安蒂特姆河對岸安頓下來。第二天清晨向南軍發起攻擊。

The Union general, George McClellan, planned to attack all along the Confederate line at the same time. But this did not happen.

北軍將領麥克萊倫將軍本打算全線進攻,但是沒能做到。

First, Union troops attacked one end of the line, which extended into a field full of tall corn plants. Then they attacked the center of the line, which was in an old, deeply sunken road that gave it good protection. Finally, they attacked at the other end of the line.

北軍部隊首先對南軍防線一端發起進攻,這部分南軍一直延伸到高高的玉米地里;北軍部隊隨后又向南軍中段發起攻擊,這部分南軍駐守在一條破舊低洼的道路上,易守難攻;北軍部隊最后對南軍防線的另外一端發起進攻。

For each northern attack, General Lee was able to move men to where they were needed. The northern troops got within twenty-five meters of the Confederate line. But they could not break through anywhere.

南軍將領羅伯特·李將軍每次都能調兵遣將,有效抵擋住北軍的攻擊。北軍部隊最遠推進到離南軍陣線25米遠的地方,但是沒能沖破南軍防線。

VOICE ONE:

On the first day of battle at Antietam, Lee lost twenty-five percent of his men. On the second day, the two armies faced each other without firing. They were too tired to fight.

安蒂特姆戰役第一天,南軍損失了四分之一的兵力;第二天雙方都疲憊不堪,因此偃旗息鼓。

As they rested, however, fresh Union soldiers moved into position. Lee knew they would attack with full force the next day. He knew he could not win. Sadly, he ordered his men back to Virginia.

就在雙方休戰、養精蓄銳之際,北軍援兵陸續趕到。南軍指揮官李將軍知道,北軍次日一定會全面進攻,他絕沒有勝利的希望,只好忍痛下令撤退。

It was now clear: Antietam was a northern victory.

安蒂特姆一戰,顯然是北方取得了勝利。

It was not a complete victory. The Union army could have chased the Confederate army and destroyed it. But General McClellan did not do this. He was satisfied that he had stopped the invasion.

盡管如此,北方并沒有大獲全勝,北軍原本可以乘勝追擊,把南軍消滅掉,但是麥克萊倫沒有這樣做,他對有效阻止南軍進犯已經很滿意了。

VOICE TWO:

In Washington, President Lincoln welcomed the news. He had waited a long time for a northern victory.

消息傳到華盛頓,林肯非常高興。他等這場勝利已經等了很久了。

Detail from a painting of President Lincoln first reading the Emancipation Proclamation to his cabinet
Detail from a painting of President Lincoln first reading the Emancipation Proclamation to his cabinet

A few days after the battle, Lincoln held a special meeting with his cabinet. He talked about the declaration on slavery which he had prepared. It would free Negro slaves in the rebel states of the South.

戰役結束幾天后,林肯召開內閣特別會議,討論解放南方叛州黑奴的問題。

"As you remember," he said, "I put the declaration aside several weeks ago, until I could issue it supported by a military victory. The action of the army against the rebels has not been exactly what I should have liked. But the rebels have been driven out of Maryland. And Pennsylvania is no longer in danger of invasion."

林肯說:“大家應該還記得,幾個星期前,我暫時擱置了這份宣言,希望打了勝仗以后再宣布。聯邦部隊對叛軍采取的行動并不完全如我所愿,但是叛軍已經被趕出了馬里蘭,賓夕法尼亞也不再受到叛軍入侵的威脅。”

President Lincoln said he thought the time was right to announce the Emancipation Proclamation. The cabinet made some minor changes in the document, and Lincoln signed it.

林肯總統說,他覺得宣布解放奴隸宣言的時機已經成熟,內閣成員對宣言進行了些許修改后,林肯在宣言上簽字。這份宣言在各大報紙上刊登。

VOICE ONE:

Newspapers printed the proclamation. This is what it said:

VOICE TWO:

"I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States and Commander-in-Chief of the army and navy, do hereby declare that on the first day of January, eighteen-sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any state then in rebellion against the United States, shall then become and be forever free. The government of the United States, including the military and naval forces, will recognize and protect the freedom of such persons, and will interfere in no way with any efforts they may make for their actual freedom."

宣言說,“我,亞伯拉罕·林肯,美國總統和陸海軍總司令,在此宣布,1863年1月1日起,所有背叛美國聯邦的各州境內的奴隸,一律成為,并永遠成為自由人。美國政府,包括陸軍和海軍,都將承認并保護這些人的自由,不會對他們為取得真正自由做出的努力進行任何形式的干涉”。

VOICE ONE:

Signing the proclamation
Signing the proclamation

President Lincoln had tried to keep the question of slavery out of the Civil War. To him, there was just one reason for fighting: to save the Union. Nothing meant more to him than preventing the nation from splitting up.

林肯總統本想將奴隸制度的問題置于內戰之外。在他看來,這場戰爭只有一個原因,那就是要捍衛聯邦的完整統一。對他來說,沒有任何事情比阻止聯邦的分裂更為重要。

Lincoln feared that the issue of slavery would weaken the northern war effort. Many men throughout the north would fight to save the Union. They would not fight to free the slaves.

林肯擔心奴隸制度的問題會削弱北方的士氣,因為很多北方人愿意為保衛聯邦而戰,但不會為解放奴隸而戰。

Lincoln also needed the support of the four slave states that did not leave the Union: Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri. He could not be sure of their support if he declared that the purpose of the war was to free the slaves.

除此以外,林肯還需要四個仍然保留在聯邦里的奴隸州的支持。這四個州分別是:德拉瓦州、肯塔基州、馬里蘭州和密蘇里州。林肯不敢肯定,如果宣布這場戰爭的目的是解放奴隸的話,這些州是否還會繼續支持他。

As Lincoln waited for a Union victory to announce his Emancipation Proclamation, he wrote a letter to the "New York Tribune" newspaper. The letter was to prepare the public for what was to come. This is what Lincoln said:

林肯等待北方打勝仗的同時,在《紐約論壇報》上發表公開信,為宣布解放奴隸宣言奠定公眾輿論的基礎。林肯在信中寫道:

VOICE TWO:

"My chief object in this struggle is to save the Union. It is not either to save or destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it. And if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it. And if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that.

"What I do about slavery, and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union. This is how I see my official duty. It does not change my wish -- as a person -- that all men everywhere could be free."

“這場戰爭我要達到的主要目的是捍衛聯邦,不是為了挽救、或是摧毀奴隸制度。如果不解放奴隸就能挽救聯邦的話,我會義無反顧;如果解放所有奴隸,就能挽救聯邦的話,我會義無反顧;如果解放一部分奴隸,保留另一部分奴隸,就能挽救聯邦的話,我也會義無反顧。我對奴隸制度和有色種族所做的一切,都是因為我相信,這樣做能夠挽救聯邦。我認為這是我的職責。當然了,這也不會改變我只代表我個人的愿望,那就是,看到世界上所有人都能擁有自由。”

VOICE ONE:

President Lincoln failed to keep the question of slavery out of the Civil War. As the war went on, month after long month, people in the North began to see it as more than a struggle for national unity. They began to see it as a struggle for human freedom.

林肯沒能將奴隸的問題置于內戰之外。隨著戰爭月復一月地推進,北方人開始覺得,這場戰爭絕不只是為了維護國家統一,而是為了爭取人類自由。

Abolitionists were active. In speeches and writings, they said over and over again that slavery was evil.

廢奴主義者活躍起來,他們發表大量演說和文章,反復批判奴隸制度的邪惡。

As public opinion began to change, anti-slavery members of Congress gained more power.

隨著民意的轉變,反對奴隸制度的國會議員開始占據優勢。

By the summer of eighteen sixty-two, they had enough support to pass laws ending slavery in Washington, D.C. and United States territories. They also pushed through Congress a bill that would do much to end slavery in the states.

到1862年夏天,他們已經贏得了足夠的支持,可以通過法律,在華盛頓特區和美國領地內廢止奴隸制度,并在國會通過了一項法案,大力推動在各州內結束奴隸制度。

VOICE TWO:

The bill was called the Confiscation Act. It gave the federal government the power to confiscate, or seize, the property of all persons who supported the southern rebellion. Slaves were considered property. So any slaves seized under the act would become free immediately. Slaves who escaped from rebel slave owners also would be free. The bill would not affect slaves owned by persons who supported the Union.

這項法案名為《沒收法案》,授權聯邦政府沒收或是查封支持南方反叛的所有人的財產。在當時,奴隸也是私人財產,因此,凡是《沒收法案》中提到的奴隸都可以立即得到自由。從支持反叛的奴隸主那里逃跑的奴隸也可以獲得自由。法案不影響那些忠實于聯邦的奴隸主的奴隸。

President Lincoln did not like the Confiscation Act. He thought it interfered with his wartime powers as Commander-in-Chief.

林肯總統對《沒收法案》并不滿意,覺得法案影響了他作為戰時軍隊最高司令的權力。

VOICE ONE:

However, Lincoln was under great pressure from Abolitionists. So he signed the new law. But he did not plan to enforce it. He still hoped for a plan that would free the slaves slowly, over time.

林肯迫于廢奴主義者的強大壓力,只好在沒收法案上簽字,但是并不準備真正執行,他還是希望能有一項計劃,逐步地、按部就班地解放奴隸。

He proposed such a plan, but only for the border states between north and south. Under his plan, the federal government would buy slaves in the border states and free them.

林肯提議,聯邦政府可以在南、北方交界地帶的各州里收購奴隸,然后給他們自由。

Lawmakers from the border states rejected Lincoln's plan. And that is when he decided to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.

相關各州的議會議員駁回了林肯的提案。林肯因此決定,發表解放奴隸宣言。

We will tell about the effects of that decision next week.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe.

THE MAKING OF A NATION is a radio series written with English learners in mind. Each weekly program is fifteen minutes long. The series began in May of nineteen sixty-nine. People who grew up listening to it are now old enough to listen with their own children, or even their grandchildren.

These days, with the Internet, people can download the transcripts and MP3s of our series at www.666321.live. They can also follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English.

There are more than two hundred programs in the complete series, which starts over again every five years. New programs with recent history are added at the end of each cycle.

Most of the shows were produced a long time ago. This explains why a few words here and there may sound a little dated. In fact, some of the announcers are not even alive anymore. But we know from our audience that THE MAKING OF A NATION is the most popular of the feature programs in VOA Special English.

Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #104 of THE MAKING OF A NATION.

網友的學習評論(1條):
作者:Alumni
the Union army had a win against the Confederate army. Abraham Lincoln announced Emancipation Proclamation, which proposed to free all the slaves in the territories in the United States. Lincoln's speech was short but counts.
版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
網站備案:蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
廣播臺
中国北京福彩中心地址 真人版麻将 安徽25选5基本走势图 开元棋牌靠谱吗 炒股票行情 顶呱刮彩票app下载 pk10注册 默认论坛三码 波克麻将怎么老是输 35选7玩法介绍 浙江6+1开奖视频