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#106: The South Wins a Battle, but Loses Stonewall Jackson

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

In the early weeks of eighteen sixty-three, the American Civil War took a new political direction. President Abraham Lincoln had announced the Emancipation Proclamation. That measure freed the slaves in the rebel states of the South, though Lincoln's words fell on deaf ears.

1863年初,美國南北戰爭改變了政治方向。美國總統林肯發布解放奴隸宣言,讓南方叛州奴隸成為自由人,但是南方奴隸主對此置若罔聞。

Yet no longer was the Civil War a struggle just to save the Union. It had become a struggle for human freedom.

盡管如此,解放奴隸宣言的發布,還是讓美國南北戰爭從一場挽救聯邦統一的戰斗,轉變成為了一場爭取人類自由的斗爭。

There was a change on the military side of the war, too. President Lincoln named a new commander for the Union's Army of the Potomac. This was the force that would try again to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia.

與此同時,林肯任命約瑟夫·胡克出任波托馬克軍團指揮官。

This week in our series, Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant describe events during the spring of eighteen sixty-three.

VOICE ONE:

General Joe Hooker
General Joe Hooker

General Joe Hooker was the new commander of the Army of the Potomac. He replaced General Ambrose Burnside, when Burnside suffered a terrible defeat at Fredericksburg, Virginia, at the end of eighteen sixty-two. Burnside had replaced General George McClellan, when McClellan kept refusing to obey President Lincoln's orders.

波托馬克軍團最早由麥克萊倫率領,但是麥克萊倫三番五次違抗林肯的命令,因此被伯恩賽德取代。伯恩賽德又因為1862年年底在維吉尼亞的弗雷德里克斯堡打了個大敗仗,因而被撤換,由約瑟夫·胡克將軍接替。

Hooker had one hundred thirty thousand men. They were well-trained and well-supplied.

胡克率領十三萬訓練有素、裝備精良的人馬,再次準備奪取南方邦聯首都里士滿。

The Confederate force opposing Hooker's was under the command of General Robert E. Lee. Lee had only about sixty thousand men. They did not have good equipment. And their supplies were low. But their fighting spirit was high. They had defeated the Union army before. They were sure they could do it again.

胡克的對手是南方指揮官羅伯特·李將軍。李將軍手下只有大約六萬兵力,裝備短缺、供給不足,但士氣高昂,對再次打敗自己的手下敗將信心十足。

VOICE TWO:

Lee's army still held strong defensive positions along high ground south of Fredericksburg. This was almost halfway between the capitals of the opposing sides: Washington and Richmond.

南方軍把弗雷德里克斯堡以南高地做為防線,此處正好位于雙方首都華盛頓和里士滿之間。

General Hooker did not plan to make the same mistake which General Burnside made at Fredericksburg. Burnside had thrown his army against Lee's defensive positions six times. Each time, the Confederates pushed them back easily. In one day of fighting, more than twelve thousand Union soldiers were killed or wounded.

胡克的前任伯恩賽德上次在弗雷德里克斯堡攻打南軍防線時,先后六次全線進攻,每次都被南軍輕而易舉地擊退,一天下來,傷亡一萬兩千多人。

General Hooker had rebuilt the Army of the Potomac. Now he was ready to carry out his plan against General Lee.

胡克將軍不想重蹈覆轍。

Hooker left half his men at Fredericksburg, in front of Lee's army. He would move the other half into position behind Lee's army. If Lee turned to meet him, the troops at Fredericksburg would attack. The Confederate army would be caught between two powerful forces. Lee would have to withdraw, or lose his army.

他準備讓一半人馬留在弗雷德里克斯堡,跟南方軍對陣,率領另外一半人馬繞到南方軍的背后去,對羅伯特·李的部隊兩面夾擊,迫使羅伯特·李撤軍。

VOICE ONE:

Hooker moved around past the end of Lee's line. Then he turned and started marching back behind it.

胡克按計劃率領部分人馬繞到南方軍背后,從后面展開包抄。

It was a hard march through thick woods, and across rough hills and valleys. The country was so wild that it was called the wilderness.

他們必須翻山越嶺,穿過茂密的叢林,行軍經過杳無人煙的荒野地帶。

On the last day of April, eighteen sixty-three, the Union force reached Chancellorsville. Chancellorsville was a crossroads near the edge of the wilderness. The next day, the soldiers would be in open country. There, General Hooker could make the best use of his men.

1863年4月30號,胡克率兵抵達錢瑟勒斯維爾。錢瑟勒斯維爾位于叢林地帶邊上的交叉路口。胡克的部隊第二天就要進入開闊地段了。

Hooker was extremely pleased. Everything was going as he had planned. He told his officers: "I have Lee in one hand and Richmond in the other."

胡克對局勢發展很滿意,并告訴手下指揮官說,“現在,李將軍和里士滿分別掌握在我的兩個手心里。”

The next day, Union soldiers began moving out of Chancellorsville and the wilderness. They did not get far. They ran into several thousand Confederate soldiers. Lee had sent them to slow the Union force.

第二天,北方軍走出錢瑟勒斯維爾的荒蕪地帶,馬上就遭遇了南方軍一支幾千人的部隊。這支部隊奉羅伯特·李將軍的命令,拖住北方軍前進的腳步。

VOICE TWO:

The Confederate force was weak. General Hooker's officers believed they could smash through it without difficulty. They did not get a chance to try. Hooker sent new orders: break off the fight. Return to Chancellorsville. Put up defensive positions.

這支南方軍人數少,胡克手下的指揮官覺得可以不費吹灰之力,將他們一舉殲滅。然而,胡克卻下令,停止戰斗,返回錢瑟勒斯維爾,構筑防線。

Hooker's officers were shocked. They protested. Hooker stood firm. He said, "Lee must fight me on my own ground."

胡克手下將領深感不解,提出抗議。但是胡克堅定不移地表示,“羅伯特·李要跟我交手,就要到我的戰場上來。”

Robert E. Lee could not understand why the Union force had returned to Chancellorsville. But he was happy it did. Now he had time to prepare his men for battle.

羅伯特·李將軍不明白北方軍為什么要返回錢瑟勒斯維爾,但他同時又感到高興,因為這樣一來,他就有時間調集人馬,為打仗做準備了。

VOICE ONE:

The last meeting of Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson
The last meeting of Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson

Lee met that night with his top general, Stonewall Jackson. They discussed the best way to attack the Union force.

羅伯特·李將軍當天晚上跟他最得力的將領,人稱“石墻”的杰克遜將軍,一起討論進攻戰術。

The center of the Union line was strong. The right side was not. Jackson was sure he could get around behind it. Lee asked Jackson how many men he would take. "All of them," Jackson answered. "Twenty-eight thousand."

北軍陣線中部強大,但右翼相對薄弱。杰克遜肯定,自己一定能從右翼繞到胡克防線的后面去。羅伯特·李問杰克遜需要多少人。杰克遜回答說,“兩萬八千人全要。”

This meant Lee would have only fourteen thousand men to face General Hooker. If the Union force attacked before Stonewall Jackson got into position, Lee could not possibly hold it back.

這就意味著,羅伯特·李將軍只剩下一萬四千人面對胡克的部隊。如果北軍搶在杰克遜進入預定位置前發動進攻的話,羅伯特·李將軍完全無法守住防線。

Lee was taking a huge chance. He thought about it for a moment. Then he told Jackson to get started.

羅伯特·李這樣做要冒很大的風險。他沉思片刻后告訴杰克遜說,就這樣,行動吧。

VOICE TWO:

Jackson's men began to leave the next morning. Union soldiers watched as they marched away. General Hooker thought Lee was withdrawing.

杰克遜第二天一早率兵出發,北軍看見南軍部隊離去,以為他們撤退了。

It took Jackson only half a day to get behind the Union force. He spent a few more hours putting his troops into position. Then he attacked. It was six o'clock in the evening.

杰克遜只用了半天的時間,就繞到了北軍身后。他用了幾個小時的時間,讓手下各就各位,傍晚六點左右發起進攻。

The right end of the Union force was not prepared for an attack. The soldiers could not believe their eyes when they saw Confederate troops running out of the woods behind them. Many Union soldiers were killed or wounded. Thousands fled.

這次進攻打了北軍右翼陣線一個措手不及,看見南軍士兵從身后的樹林子里沖出來,他們簡直不敢相信自己的眼睛,北軍很多將士傷亡,還有幾千人逃跑。

The sun went down. The fighting continued under a bright moon. The Confederate troops kept moving forward. The Union troops kept falling back. One northern soldier wrote later: "Darkness was upon us. Jackson was upon us. And fear was upon us."

太陽下山了,但是戰斗在明亮的月光下繼續進行。南軍不斷前進,北軍不斷后退。一個北軍士兵后來寫道:“黑暗降臨,杰克遜緊追不舍,我們充滿恐懼。”

VOICE ONE:

Jackson seemed to be everywhere. He rode his horse among his men, urging them forward. He would not let the Union force escape.

杰克遜無處不在。他騎著戰馬,在戰場上馳騁,鼓勵部下向前沖,絕不讓北軍逃走。

The Battle of Chancellorsville
The Battle of Chancellorsville

As Jackson and some of his officers rode into a cleared area of the woods, shots rang out. The bullets came from Confederate guns. The Confederate soldiers thought they were firing on Union officers.

然而,杰克遜率領部下進入樹林里的一片空地后,突然受到槍彈的襲擊。槍是南軍士兵開的,他們把杰克遜的部隊誤認成了北軍。

Jackson fell from his horse. Two bullets had smashed his left arm. Another bullet had hit his right hand. He was hurried to the back of the line. A doctor quickly cut off his left arm and stopped the heavy bleeding.

杰克遜左臂連中兩槍,從馬上摔了下來,右手也中了一槍。部下立即將杰克遜護送回后方,軍醫迅速進行左臂截肢,并成功止血。

Jackson seemed to get better. Then he developed pneumonia. He was unconscious most of the time. He seemed to dream of battle, and shouted commands to his officers. Then he grew quiet. He opened his eyes and said, "Let us pass over the river and rest in the shade of the trees."

杰克遜的情況短暫好轉后,轉為肺炎。杰克遜大部分時間昏迷不醒,他好象做夢夢見打仗,不斷向部下發號施令,然后突然安靜下來,睜開眼睛說,“大家過河,在樹蔭下休息”。

The great Confederate General, Stonewall Jackson, was dead.

說完這句話,南軍的偉大將領、人稱“石墻”的杰克遜將軍就與世長辭了。

VOICE TWO:

While Jackson lay dying, the battle of Chancellorsville continued.

與此同時,錢瑟勒斯維爾戰役繼續進行。

Robert E. Lee's Confederate army was much smaller than Joe Hooker's Union army. But for five days, Lee kept part of his army moving between Chancellorsville and Fredericksburg. Wherever the Union army attacked, Lee quickly added more men to his lines. The Union army could not break through.

羅伯特·李率領的南軍兵力比胡克的北軍少得多。但羅伯特·李有效地在錢瑟勒斯維爾和弗雷德里克斯堡兩條戰線之間調兵遣將,北軍部隊五天都沒能突破南軍的防線。

The fighting was taking place on the south side of the Rappahannock River. The Union army's supply lines were on the north side.

戰斗是在拉帕漢諾克河以南進行的,而北軍部隊的供給線卻在河的北面。

Spring rains were beginning to make the Rappahannock rise. General Hooker did not want to get trapped without food and ammunition. So he ordered his men back across the river.

春天的雨水讓拉帕漢諾克河水上漲,胡克不想看到自己的部隊被困住,沒有食物和彈藥,所以下令撤回河對岸。

VOICE ONE:

The South had won the battle of Chancellorsville. Robert E. Lee was sure of that. Once again, he had forced back the Army of the Potomac. But the Union army was not hurt seriously. New soldiers would soon take the place of those lost in battle.

錢瑟勒斯維爾一役,南軍又打了勝仗。羅伯特·李將軍再次成功擋住了波托馬克軍團的攻勢,但是北軍沒有受到重創,很快就可以補充兵力。

Lee, however, would find it more difficult to replace his soldiers. The South was running out of manpower. Every Confederate army needed men -- more and more men. Yet fewer and fewer southern boys were willing to become soldiers.

與此同時,南軍卻面臨兵力短缺的困境。南軍的所有兵團都需要補充人力,但是南方年輕人里愿意參軍打仗的卻越來越少。

Anti-war movements were, in fact, active in both the North and South. There were a number of protests against the military draft. Some turned violent.

同時,反戰情緒在南方和北方高漲,發生了好幾次反對征兵的抗議示威活動,有些示威甚至出現暴力沖突。

In the North, a political party was created to oppose the Civil War. Leaders of this peace party were called Copperheads. They got the name because they wore a copper penny showing the head of an Indian.

北方還誕生了一個反對內戰的政黨,政黨領袖身上都佩戴著一分錢的銅制硬幣,上面是印第安人頭像,因此被稱為銅頭。

That will be our story in our next program on the Civil War.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant. Our series can be found online with transcripts, podcasts and historical images at www.666321.live. You can also follow our weekly programs on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #106 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

網友的學習評論(1條):
作者:Alumni
New soldiers would soon take the pace of those lost in battle. it is something like in the stock market-- many earlier inverstors who lost in market left the market and new ones would take the place of those lost in market. how resemblant it is!!
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