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#108: As the Civil War Grows, So Does Opposition

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

By eighteen sixty-three, America's northern states and southern states had been fighting a bitter civil war for two years. Both sides felt the pressure of the costly struggle.

到1863年,美國內戰已經持續兩年。這場戰爭代價慘重,交戰雙方都感到沉重壓力。

The South was beginning to suffer from a lack of supplies and men for its armies. The North was beginning to suffer from a lack of fighting spirit.

南方的物資和兵源出現短缺,北方人也開始意志消沉。

This week in our series, Larry West and Tony Riggs describe an anti-war movement that was growing.

VOICE ONE:

Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln

Many Americans in northern states did not support the war policies of Union President Abraham Lincoln. Some said openly that they did not care who won the war. They just wanted to be left alone.

北方各州的很多美國人并不支持林肯的戰爭政策。一些人甚至公開表示,他們不在乎誰輸誰贏,只希望自己不要受到戰火的波及。

Coal miners in Pennsylvania protested against a law drafting men into the Union army. They rioted and attacked officials who tried to take them. Soldiers were sent to Pennsylvania to put down the riots.

新的征兵法引起了賓夕法尼亞礦工的憤怒,他們舉行暴動,跟強行征兵的官員發生沖突,政府不得不出兵鎮暴。

Farmers in Ohio also protested. They refused to be drafted. They attacked soldiers who were sent to arrest them. The worst anti-war riots, however, took place in New York City.

俄亥俄地區的農民也以同樣的方式抵制征兵,對前來抓他們的士兵發動襲擊。最嚴重的反戰暴動發生在紐約市。

VOICE TWO:

On July thirteenth, eighteen sixty-three, a crowd formed outside a New York draft office. Inside, army officials were choosing the names of men who would be taken into the army. Each name was written on a separate piece of paper. The papers were mixed together in a big box. The officials then began to remove the papers one at a time. They made a list of the names. These were the men of New York who must go off to fight.

1863年7月13號,征兵官員在征兵辦公室里挑選下一批征兵人員名單,與此同時,辦公室外面圍了一大群人。征兵官員把人名寫在小紙條上,團成一團,放在一個大盒子里,抽到誰,誰就要應征入伍,代表紐約去前線。

On that day, however, the list was never completed. The crowd outside the draft office became louder. There were shouts of protest against the draft and against the Civil War.

7月13號那天,征兵辦公室外面的聲浪越來越大,有人高聲抵制征兵,反對內戰。

VOICE ONE:

Police struggling to control rioters in New York
Police struggling to control rioters in New York

Suddenly, a stone crashed through the office window. Then another. And another. The army officials escaped. But a policeman inside could not get away. The rioters beat him badly. Then they set fire to the draft office and several buildings nearby. The riot spread across the city.

突然,一塊石頭從窗戶飛了進來,然后又是兩塊,征兵官員僥幸逃走,但當時在場的一個警察沒走了,被抗議者打得很慘,他們還在征兵辦公室和附近幾處建筑放火,暴動席卷整個城市。

The riot began as a political protest against the draft. Poor men opposed the draft, because it permitted rich men to escape military service.

這是反對征兵的政治暴動。窮人反對征兵法,因為有錢就不用服兵役。

The law said a man who was drafted could stay out of the army by doing one of two things. He could pay the government three hundred dollars. Or he could pay another man to serve in his place. If a drafted man could not do either thing, then he must join the army or be shot as a deserter.

征兵法規定,如果被召入伍,但是不想去,有兩條出路:一是繳納三百美元;二是花錢雇人代替。如果兩點都做不到的話,就必須應征入伍,否則按逃兵被槍斃。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

In the wartime economy of the North, prices were rising much faster than wages. Even a man with a good job had a difficult time feeding his family. It was impossible for him to pay the government three hundred dollars or pay someone else to serve for him in the army.

戰爭時期,北方物價比工資長得快得多。即使有不錯的工作,也只能勉強養家糊口,根本不可能繳納三百美元的罰款,或是花錢找人替自己應征入伍。

Poor men protested against the law. They said it was unfair. "It's a rich man's war," they cried, "but a poor man's fight. The rich man's money against the poor man's blood."

窮人因此提出抗議,說征兵法不公平。他們高喊,“這是有錢人的戰爭,但卻是窮人的戰斗,是富有者的錢,和窮人的血。”

VOICE ONE:

There was something else that deeply troubled working men in the North. Anti-war activists told them that the war was not being fought to save the Union, but to free Negro slaves.

除此之外,讓北方工薪階層深感疑惑的是,反戰積極分子說,這場戰爭的目的不是維護聯邦的完整,而是要給黑奴自由。

The activists said the freed Negroes would move north and take jobs away from whites. Many men believed this. They said they would not fight.

他們還說,獲得自由的黑人會跑到北方來,跟白人搶工作。很多人信以為真,拒絕參加戰斗。

VOICE TWO:

An orphanage for black children burns during the riots in New York
An orphanage for black children burns during the riots in New York

Then, on July thirteenth, the angers and fears of working men in New York exploded. Their attack on the draft office that day was just the beginning. The violence lasted three days.

在這種背景下,紐約市普通民眾的憤怒和恐慌終于爆發。他們攻擊征兵辦公室只是一個起點,暴動迅速蔓延,整整持續了三天。

The rioters beat many policemen to death. They beat, burned, and hanged every Negro they could find. They also killed many whites who tried to protect the Negroes. By the time soldiers stopped the rioting, one thousand persons had been killed.

暴民不僅活活打死很多警察,而且所有被他們抓住的黑人都被毆打、火燒、吊死,很多試圖保護黑人的白人也被殺死。暴動平息時,已經有一千人死去。

VOICE ONE:

The leaders of the anti-war movement in the north were members of the opposition Democratic Party. They wore on their coats a copper penny showing the head of a Native American Indian. This gave them the name "Copperheads." One important Copperhead was a former congressman from Ohio, Clement Vallandigham.

北方反戰運動的領袖都是反對黨民主黨的成員。他們因為在外衣上佩戴著一枚刻有印第安人頭像的銅制硬幣,被稱為銅頭。他們的頭領是俄亥俄地區的前國會眾議員伐蘭狄甘。

Vallandigham made a speech criticizing the Union government. He was charged with violating a military law that banned such criticism. He was arrested. The former congressman was taken before a military court. He objected. He said if he had broken a law, he should be tried by a civilian court. He demanded this as his constitutional right.

伐蘭狄甘因為發表批評聯邦政府的講話被捕,罪名是違反了禁止批評政府政策的軍事法令,要接受軍事法庭的審判。伐蘭狄甘拒絕。他表示,就算他真的違反了法律,按照憲法賦予的權利,也應該在民事法庭受審。

VOICE TWO:

Clement Vallandigham
Clement Vallandigham

The military judges rejected his argument. They found him guilty. And they sentenced him to remain in a Union military prison until the end of the war.

軍事法院法官駁回了他的申訴,判定他罪名成立,直到戰爭結束才能刑滿釋放。

People throughout the north were angry. Many did not support Clement Vallandigham's ideas. But they supported his right to speak freely.

這一判決讓北方人群情激昂。他們當中很多人雖然并不贊成伐蘭狄甘的看法,但是支持他自由發表言論的權利。

President Lincoln could approve or reject Vallandigham's sentence. His decision would show which issue was more important: the citizens' right to free speech, or national security.

林肯總統有權批準或是否決伐蘭狄甘的判決。他的決定至關重要,因為由此可以看出,公民言論自由和國家安全,孰重孰輕。

VOICE ONE:

Lincoln was a good politician and a smart lawyer. He found an unexpected way to deal with the problem. He neither approved nor rejected the sentence. He changed it.

林肯是卓越的政治家,也是聰明的律師,他找到了一個意想不到的解決辦法,既不批準、也不否決,而是改變了伐蘭狄甘的判決。

Lincoln ordered Vallandigham to be turned over to the Confederate army. Then he explained that Vallandigham had not been arrested for criticizing the government.

林肯下令將伐蘭狄甘交給南軍部隊。林肯隨后解釋說,伐蘭狄甘被捕,不是因為批評政府。

"His arrest was made," Lincoln said, "because he was trying -- with some success -- to prevent men from entering the army. He was urging soldiers already in the army to leave it. Mister Vallandigham was not arrested because he was damaging the political chances of the administration, or the interests of the commanding general, but because he was damaging the army, upon which the life of the nation depends."

林肯說,“他被捕,是因為他阻止大家參軍,而且取得了成效。他敦促士兵離開部隊。伐蘭狄甘被捕,不是因為他損害了政府的政治前途,也不是因為他損害了指揮官的利益,而是因為他損害的軍隊,而軍隊的成敗關系到國家的命運。”

The Confederates welcomed the anti-war leader. They helped him get to Canada. Vallandigham continued his anti-war campaign from there.

南方邦聯熱烈歡迎反戰領袖伐蘭狄甘的到來。他們幫助他前往加拿大,伐蘭狄甘在那里繼續他的反戰活動。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

President Lincoln was troubled by the anti-war movement and violent opposition to the draft laws. He felt he had to make citizens understand why such laws were necessary. He prepared a speech which explained his thoughts.

反戰運動和征兵法引發的暴力反抗讓林肯深感不安。他覺得,有必要讓民眾了解這些法律的重要性。他為此準備了一篇講話。

"There can be no army without men," Lincoln wrote. "Men can be had only with their permission or without it. We can no longer get enough men willingly, so there is a draft. If you dispute this, and declare that men are still willing to serve in the army, then prove it by volunteering yourselves in large numbers. Then I will give up the draft."

林肯在講話中是這樣寫的:“沒有軍人就沒有軍隊,參軍可以是自愿的,也可以是非自愿的。我們現在沒有足夠人自愿參軍,所以才會征兵。如果誰提出異議,說有人愿意參軍,報效國家,可以成群結隊地自愿去參軍,那我就放棄征兵。”

VOICE ONE:

Lincoln never gave this speech. He felt it was too direct. Instead, he gave a different kind of speech to the people of the Union.

林肯覺得這篇講話過于直接,所以沒有公布,而是發表了另外一篇截然不同的講話。

"You want peace," Lincoln said, "and you blame me that we do not have it. But how can we get it. There are but three ways possible."

"First, to put down the southern rebellion by force of arms. This I am trying to do. Are you for it? If you are, then we are so far agreed. If you are not for it, a second way is to give up the Union. I am against this. Are you for the Union? If you are, you should say so clearly. If you are not for force, and not for dissolving the Union, there only remains some kind of compromise. I do not believe any such compromise is possible."

林肯在講話中說,“你們要和平,因為沒有和平而怪罪于我。如何才能得到和平呢?有三種路可以走。第一條路是武力鎮壓南方反叛。這正是我在做的。你們贊成嗎?如果贊成的話,我們到現在為止意見還是一致的。如果你不贊成的話,第二條路是放棄聯邦。我反對這樣做。你們希望維護聯邦統一嗎?如果是,就要明確說出來。如果你不支持武力,也不贊成聯邦解體,唯一的可能就是達成某種妥協。我認為這是不可能的。”

VOICE TWO:

Politicians urged President Lincoln to investigate the anti-war protests in New York to learn who had led them. He refused.

政界人物要求林肯對紐約的反戰抗議活動進行調查,查出鬧事的主謀。林肯不同意。

Lincoln believed that starting an investigation would be like lighting a barrel of gunpowder. He already was fighting a bitter struggle against rebels in the South. He did not want to fight the people of the North, too.

他相信,對此展開調查無異于點燃一個火藥桶,他已經在跟南方叛軍戰斗了,不要跟北方人也打起來。

Southern leaders were pleased with the Copperheads' anti-war movement. Confederate General Robert E. Lee saw it as a sign of weakness in the northern war effort. He also saw it as an opening for a military victory.

南方領袖對“銅頭”領導的反戰運動十分滿意。南軍總指揮羅伯特·李將軍認為這顯示了北方戰斗士氣的削弱,也是他打個大勝仗的好機會。

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Larry West and Tony Riggs. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.666321.live. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #108 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

網友的學習評論(2條):
作者:houjunying
l love Lincoln .he was very clever and brave
作者:Alumni
we demand justice but unjustness is everywhere. there is an example in this section of American civil war. the north made a wartime law, it said: if anyone doenst want to be drafted, he should pay 300 dollars to the government. it is hard to general people for that time except those rich. so people say: it was the rich man's money against the poor man's blood. maybe fairness is just permanent demand only. man is created equal really?
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