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#116: Robert E. Lee's Surrender

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

Surrender finally came for General Robert E. Lee and the Confederacy he had served as a great soldier.

It was mostly his military skill and intelligence that kept the South in the field so long. But even his extraordinary skill could not save the South from the industrial power of the North and its mighty armies -- armies that were well-fed and well-equipped.

This week in our series, Stuart Spencer and Leo Scully continue the story of the American Civil War.

VOICE ONE:

General Robert E. Lee
General Robert E. Lee

The last chapter of the bitter four-year struggle came in April eighteen sixty-five. General Grant had pushed Lee's army away from Richmond and nearby Petersburg, Virginia. His Union forces had kept after the Confederates for almost a week.

1865年4月18號,美國打了四年的南北戰爭終于進入尾聲。北方部隊的格蘭特將軍把羅伯特·李率領的南軍部隊從維吉尼亞的里士滿和彼得斯堡趕走,在接下來的一周里乘勝追擊,圍追堵截。

Lee fled westward across Virginia. His tired, hungry soldiers tried to turn south, to reach safety in the Carolinas. But always, the Union army blocked the way.

羅伯特·李率部西退。疲憊不堪、饑腸轆轆的南軍士兵試圖向南,到卡羅萊納去尋找安全,可無論怎么走,就是逃不出北方軍的包圍圈。

Finally on Saturday, April eighth, Lee's army found it could flee no farther. A Union force at Appomattox Station blocked any further movement to the west.

終于,4月8號星期六,羅伯特·李的部隊無處可逃了,西進之路被阿普馬托克斯站的北軍死死堵住。

Early the next morning, Lee tried to break through the ring of Union soldiers that surrounded his army. But he failed. Nothing was left. Nothing but surrender.

第二天早上,羅伯特·李將軍突圍失敗,除了投降以外,已經別無選擇。

VOICE TWO:

The McLean house in 1865
The McLean house in 1865

Lee sent a note to General Grant asking to meet with him to discuss surrender terms. A few hours later, General Grant rode into the crossroads village of Appomattox Court House.

羅伯特·李給格蘭特傳信,要跟他見面,交涉投降條件。幾小時后,格蘭特騎馬來到一個叫阿普馬托克斯法院的鎮子。

General Lee was waiting for him at the home of a man named Wilmer McLean. Lee rose as Grant walked into the house.

羅伯特·李在一個名叫馬克林的人家里恭候??吹礁裉m特進門,他起身迎接。

Grant did not look like a great military leader, the chief of all Union armies. He was dressed simply. His clothes were the same as those worn by the lowest soldiers in his army. His boots and pants were covered with mud. His blue coat was dirty and wrinkled. But on its shoulders were the three gold stars of the Union's highest general.

格蘭特看上去根本不像是統帥北軍所有人馬的偉大的軍事指揮官,他穿著簡樸,軍裝跟小兵沒什么兩樣,戰靴和褲子上都是泥不說,藍大衣也是臟乎乎、皺巴巴的,只有肩上三顆金星,能看出他是北軍最高將領。

VOICE ONE:

Lee was dressed in his finest clothing. He wore a beautiful gray coat with a red sash tied around it. At his side, he carried an ivory and silver sword.

羅伯特·李則穿著整齊,漂亮的灰大衣外面系著一條紅腰帶,腰間還佩戴著一把鑲著象牙的銀劍。

The two generals greeted each other and shook hands. Grant said: "I met you once before, General Lee, while we were serving in Mexico. I have always remembered your appearance. I think I would have recognized you anywhere."

兩位將軍握手致意。格蘭特說:"我以前見過你一次,李將軍,我們一起在墨西哥打過仗。我永遠忘不了你的樣子,在哪兒都能認出你來。"

Lee said: "Yes, I know I met you then. And I have often tried to remember how you looked. But I have never been able to remember a single feature."

羅伯特·李回答說,"沒錯,我知道見過你,總想回憶起你的樣子,可就是一點兒也想不起來。"

VOICE TWO:

Grant continued to talk of their service in the Mexican War. He said later that he did so because he was finding it difficult to bring up the question of surrender.

格蘭特繼續回憶他們在墨西哥戰爭中一起打仗的情形。他后來承認,這樣做是因為他不知道該怎樣把話題轉向投降一事。

Lee took part in the light talk for several minutes. Finally, he said: "I suppose, General Grant, that the purpose of our meeting is fully understood. I asked to see you to learn upon what terms you would receive the surrender of my army."

倆人聊了一會兒天兒后,羅伯特·李終于說:"格蘭特將軍,我想,我們見面的目的大家都很清楚,我要求見你,是想知道,我們投降,你有哪些條件。"

Grant answered: "The terms I propose are those I offered in my earlier note to you. That is, the officers and men surrendered will not take up arms again. And all your weapons and supplies will become captured property."

格蘭特回答說:"我的條件跟我先前給你信中提出的一樣。那就是,投降將士不得重新拿起武器,你們的所有武器和裝備都是我們的戰利品。"

VOICE ONE:

Generals Grant and Lee at Appomattox
Generals Grant and Lee at Appomattox

Lee said those were the conditions he had expected. He asked Grant to put the terms in writing so he could sign them. "Very well," said Grant. "I will write them out."

羅伯特·李說,這些條件都在他的預料之中。他讓格蘭特把條件寫在紙上,他好簽字。格蘭特回答說:"那好,我把它們寫下來。"

It took him several minutes to write the surrender agreement. Only once did he look up.

格蘭特只用幾分鐘就寫好了投降議定書,在此期間,他只抬過一次頭。

He had just written the sentence: "The arms, artillery and public property will be given over to the Union army." Grant stopped writing and looked over at the sword the old general wore.

當時,他正好寫道"武器、大炮和公共財產一律由北方軍接管。"格蘭特停下筆,看了一眼羅伯特·李身上的佩劍。

He decided there was no need to hurt Lee's pride by taking away his sword. So he added:

他心想,絕不能繳獲這把劍,傷害李將軍的自尊心。于是在后面補充道:

'This will not include the side arms of the officers nor their horses or other private property. Each officer and man shall be allowed to return to his home. He will not be disturbed by United States authorities as long as he honors this agreement and obeys the laws where he lives.'

"不包括軍官身上佩帶的武器、馬匹和其它私人財產。所有將士都可以返回家園,只要遵守投降議定書里的規定,遵守當地法律,就不會受到政府的騷擾。"

VOICE TWO:

Grant gave the paper to Lee. Lee read it slowly. When he finished, Grant asked if the Confederate general wished to propose any changes. Lee was silent for a moment. "There is one thing," he said. "The cavalrymen and artillerymen in our army own their own horses. I would like to understand if these men will be allowed to keep their horses."

羅伯特·李仔細讀過后,格蘭特問他有沒有意見。羅伯特·李沉默片刻后說:"只有一件事。我們的騎兵和炮兵的戰馬都是自己的,我想知道他們是否可以保留自己的馬匹。"

"You will find," Grant said, "that the terms as written do not allow it. Only the officers are permitted to take their private property."

"You are correct," said Lee. "I see the terms do not allow it. That is clear."

格蘭特說:"根據議定書的規定是不行的,只有軍官可以保留私人財產。"羅伯特·李回答說:"對,我也看到議定書上是不允許的,上面寫得很明確。"

VOICE ONE:

Until now, Lee's face had shown no emotion. But for a moment, his self-control weakened. Grant could see how badly Lee wanted this.

在此之前,羅伯特·李的臉上一直沒有表情。但是片刻間,他的情緒有些失控。格蘭特可以看出,他非常想替部下爭取到這點利益。

"Well," said Grant, "I did not know that any private soldiers owned their horses. But I think that this will be the last battle of the war. I sincerely hope so. I think that the surrender of this army will be followed soon by that of all the others.

格蘭特說:"我原先不知道你們的馬都是士兵的私人財產。不過我想,這該是戰爭的最后一戰了,我真心希望如此。我想接下來,其它隊伍也會陸續投降。

"I take it that most of your soldiers are small farmers and will need the horses to put in a crop that will carry themselves and their families through the next winter. I will not change the terms as they are written. But I will tell my officers to let all the men who claim to own a horse or mule take the animals home with them to work their little farms."

我相信,你們隊伍里的大多數士兵都是農民,需要這些馬來種地,養家糊口,渡過接下來的冬天。我不會更改投降議定書,但可以通知我的手下,允許所有人把自己的馬或騾子帶回家去種地。"

VOICE TWO:

'Surrender at Appomattox
'Surrender at Appomattox" by artist Tom Lovell

Lee was pleased with this. He told Grant: "This will have the best possible effect upon the men. It will be very gratifying and will do much to help our people."

李將軍高興地告訴格蘭特說:"這樣做會對他們產生最好的影響,他們會非常感激,對他們的人民也會有極大幫助。"

While waiting for the surrender papers to be copied, Grant presented Lee to the other Union officers in the room. Lee had known some of them before the war.

投降議定書被抄寫的過程中,格蘭特給李將軍介紹房間里的其他北軍軍官,其中一些人李將軍在南北戰爭前就認識。

After a few minutes, Lee turned to Grant. He told him that his army held about one thousand Union soldiers as war prisoners. He said that for the past few days, he had no food but cracked corn to give them. He said he had nothing to give his own men to eat.

幾分鐘后,羅伯特·李告訴格蘭特說,南軍手里有大約一千名北軍俘虜。他說,過去幾天里,我只有干玉米粒給他們吃,我們自己人也沒有什么吃的。

Grant called in his supply officer and ordered him to feed the Confederate army. He told him to send to Lee's army enough food for twenty-five thousand men.

格蘭特立即把自己的供給官叫來,命令他給南方士兵提供食物,要足夠兩萬五千人吃。

VOICE ONE:

Detail of
Detail of "The Surrender at Appomattox" by Keith Rocco

Finally, the surrender papers were ready. Grant and Lee signed them. Lee shook hands with Grant and walked out of the house.

投降議定書終于抄好了,格蘭特和羅伯特·李分別在上面簽名。羅伯特·李跟格蘭特握手后起身離開。

Lee got on his horse and rode slowly back to his army. As he entered Confederate lines, men began to cheer. But the cheering died when the soldiers saw the pain and sorrow in Lee's face. Tears filled the old man's eyes. He could not speak. Soldiers removed their hats and watched silently as Lee rode past. Many wept.

李將軍騎上馬背,緩緩地往回走。南方士兵看到李將軍回來,開始歡呼,但當他們看到李將軍臉上的痛苦表情后,歡呼聲停了下來。李將軍雙眼滿含淚水,說不出話來。士兵們紛紛摘下帽子,默默地看著李將軍騎馬從他們面前走過。很多人都禁不住淚流滿面。

VOICE TWO:

A crowd of soldiers waited at Lee's headquarters. They pushed close around him trying to touch him, trying to shake his hand.

一群士兵在李將軍的指揮總部等他回來。他們把李將軍團團圍住,都想握握老將軍的手。

Lee began to speak. "Boys, I have done the best I could for you. Go home now. And if you make as good citizens as you have soldiers, you will do well. I shall always be proud of you. Goodbye. And God bless you all."

李將軍說:"孩子們,我已經為你們做了我所能做到的一切,你們回家去吧。做為士兵,你們都是好樣的,如果你們能像當兵一樣,做個好公民的話,就一定能過上好日子。我會永遠為你們感到驕傲。愿上帝保佑你們。"

From the crowd came a loud cry. "Farewell, General Lee! I wish for your sake and mine that every damned Yankee on earth was sunk ten miles in hell!"

人群中有人大喊,"再見了,李將軍。為了你也是為了我,我詛咒地球上所有可惡的北方佬兒都下地獄。"

VOICE ONE:

On the other side of the lines, Union soldiers began to celebrate. Artillerymen fired their guns to salute the victory over Lee.

與此同時,陣線另一側的北軍士兵開始用炮聲慶祝勝利。

Grant heard the artillery booming and sent orders that it should stop. "The rebels are our countrymen again," he said. "We can best show our joy by refusing to celebrate their downfall."

格蘭特聽到炮聲后,下令停止。他說:"反叛者都是我們的同胞,不對他們的失敗大肆慶祝,才是我們表現喜悅的最佳方式。"

VOICE TWO:

General Grant left Appomattox Court House to return to his headquarters a few kilometers away. Suddenly, he stopped his horse. He had forgotten to tell President Lincoln or War Secretary Stanton that Lee had surrendered. He sat down at the side of the road and wrote a telegram to Secretary Stanton.

格蘭特離開阿普馬托克斯法院,起身返回幾公里外的指揮所。他突然想起,竟然忘了把羅伯特·李投降的消息告訴林肯總統和戰爭部長斯坦頓。他在路邊坐下,給斯坦頓寫電報。

News of the surrender reached Washington late on Sunday. Most citizens in the capital did not learn of it until early the next morning. Then cannons began to boom out over the city. Crowds rushed to the White House to cheer the president. They asked Lincoln to make a victory speech.

羅伯特·李投降的消息星期天晚上傳到首都華盛頓。華盛頓大部分居民直到星期一早上才得知這一喜訊,隆隆的炮聲響徹天空,如潮的人流奔向白宮,向總統歡呼,要林肯發表勝利感言。

Lincoln said he had not prepared a statement. He wished to wait until the next night. He asked the people to come back then and he would have something to say.

林肯說,他沒有準備聲明。他讓大家第二天晚上再來,屆時,他將發表講話。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Stuart Spencer and Leo Scully. You can find transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs along with historical images at www.666321.live. You can also follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #116 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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作者:hliu
Robert E. Lee, what a great general, wept in front of his men. I cann't imagine the sorrow he had.
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