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#117: President Lincoln is Shot at Ford's Theater

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION?- American history in VOA Special English.

On April ninth, eighteen sixty-five, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his army to Union General Ulysses Grant. Within weeks, the Civil War would be over.

1865年4月9號,南軍將領羅伯特·李宣布投降,幾周內,南北戰爭就要結束了。

When people in Washington learned of Lee's surrender, they hurried to the White House. The crowd wanted to hear from President Abraham Lincoln.

南軍投降的消息傳到首都華盛頓后,如潮的人流涌向白宮,希望能聽到美國總統林肯發表勝利感言。

The speech he gave would be one of his last, as Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe explain this week in our series.

沒想到,這卻成了林肯的最后一次講話。

VOICE ONE:

One of the last portraits taken of President Lincoln
One of the last portraits taken of President Lincoln

President Lincoln spoke several days after General Lee's surrender. The people expected a victory speech. But Lincoln gave them something else.

羅伯特·李率領的南軍投降幾天后,林肯總統發表講話。大家想聽的是勝利致辭,但林肯談的卻是勝利后即將遇到的困難。

Already, he was moving forward from victory to the difficult times ahead. The southern rebellion was over. Now, he faced the task of re-building the Union. Lincoln did not want to punish the South. He wanted to re-join the ties that the Civil War had broken. So, when the people of the North expected a speech of victory, he gave them a speech of reconstruction, instead.

南方反叛結束了,他如今肩負著國家重建的重擔。林肯不想懲罰南方,希望重建內戰切斷的紐帶。因此,北方人期待林肯發表勝利感言,而林肯的講話重點卻是戰后重建。

On the night of April eleventh, Lincoln appeared before a crowd outside the White House. He held a candle in one hand and his speech in the other.

4月11號晚上,林肯在白宮外面,一手拿著蠟燭,一手拿著講稿說:

VOICE TWO:

"Fellow citizens," Lincoln said. "We meet this evening not in sorrow, but in gladness of heart. The surrender of the main army of the Confederacy gives hope of a righteous and speedy peace. The joy cannot be held back. By these recent successes, we have had pressed more closely upon us the question of reconstruction.

"同胞們,我們今晚聚在這里,不是滿懷悲慟,而是充滿喜悅。南方邦聯主力部隊投降,給我們帶來了迅速走向正義的和平的希望。我們無法控制快樂的心情。最近一系列勝利,也讓我們日益面對國家重建的問題。"

"We all agree," Lincoln continued, "that the so-called seceded states are out of their correct relation with the Union. We also agree that what the government is trying to do is get these states back into their correct relation.

林肯繼續說道:"我們一致認為,所謂退出聯邦的各州結束了跟聯邦的正常關系。我們同樣認為,政府的奮斗目標就是要讓它們恢復跟聯邦的正常關系。

"I believe it is not only possible, but in fact easier to do this without deciding the legal question of whether these states have ever been out of the Union. Finding themselves safely at home, it would be of no importance whether they had ever been away."

我認為,不去追究這些州是否曾經退出聯邦的法律問題不僅是可行的,而且有利于達到我們的目標。只要他們能安全回家,是否曾經離開其實并不重要。"

VOICE ONE:

There was cheering and applause when President Lincoln finished, but less than when he began. The speech had been too long and too detailed to please the crowd. Lincoln, however, believed it a success. He hoped he had made the country understand one thing: the great need to forget hatred and bitterness in the difficult time of re-building that would follow the war.

講話結束時的歡呼和掌聲遠沒有講話開始時熱烈。對于聽眾來說,這篇講話太過冗長具體。然而,林肯卻覺得講話很成功。他希望自己讓人民明白了一件事情,那就是,在戰后重建的艱難階段,大家一定要拋棄仇視和怨恨。

The president continued to discuss his ideas on reconstruction over the next few days. On Friday, April fourteenth, he agreed to put this work aside for a while. In the afternoon, he took his wife Mary for a long drive away from the city. In the evening, they would go to the theater.

在接下來的幾天里,林肯繼續討論戰后重建。4月14號星期五,他決定暫時把工作放一放,下午攜夫人瑪麗出城郊游,晚上去劇院看戲。

VOICE TWO:

One of the popular plays of the time, called "Our American Cousin," was being performed at Ford's Theater, not far from the White House. The Secretary of War did not want the Lincolns to go alone. He ordered an army officer to go with them.

當天,一部深受喜愛的劇目"我們的美國親戚"正在距離白宮不遠的福特劇院上演。戰爭部長斯坦頓不希望林肯夫婦自己去看戲,專門派了一名軍官陪他們一起去。

The President and Misses Lincoln sat in special seats at Ford's Theater. The presidential box was above and to one side of the stage. A guard always stood outside the door to the box. On this night, however, the guard did not remain. He left the box unprotected.

林肯夫婦坐在福特劇院的總統包廂里,位于劇院樓上的一側,外面有警衛站崗。然而,警衛那天晚上不知道跑到哪里去了,讓包廂失去了保護。

VOICE ONE:

A picture representing the shooting of President Lincoln at Ford's Theater
A picture representing the shooting of President Lincoln at Ford's Theater

President Lincoln settled down in his seat to enjoy the play. As he did so, a man came to the door of the box. He carried a gun in one hand and a knife in the other. The man entered the presidential box quietly. He slowly raised the gun. He aimed it at the back of Lincoln's head. He fired.

林肯在包廂里坐下,開始看戲。就在此時,一個男子來到包廂門外,他一手拿槍,一手拿匕首,悄悄走進包廂,緩緩地舉起槍,對準林肯的后腦勺,扣動了扳機。

Then the man jumped from the box to the stage three meters below. Many in the theater recognized him. He was an actor: John Wilkes Booth.

刺客隨即從三米高的包廂跳到下面的舞臺上。劇院里很多人都認出了此人,他是演員約翰·威爾克斯·布斯。

Booth broke his leg when he hit the stage floor. But he pulled himself up, shouted "Sic semper tyrannis!" -- "Thus ever to tyrants!" -- and ran out the door. He got on a horse, and was gone.

布斯跳到舞臺上摔斷了腿,但還是硬撐著站起身來,高喊"這就是暴君的下場",然后沖出劇院大門,騎馬跑了。

VOICE TWO:

The attack was so quick that the audience did not know what had happened. Then a woman shouted, "The president has been shot!"

整個刺殺過程太快了,劇院觀眾都沒有意識到發生了些什么,直到一個女人大喊一聲,"總統中彈了"。

Lincoln had fallen forward in his seat, unconscious. Someone asked if it was possible to move him to the White House. A young army doctor said no. The president's wound was terrible. He would die long before reaching the White House.

中彈后的林肯不省人事。有人問,能不能把他送回白宮去,一個年輕軍醫說,不行。林肯傷勢太重,根本堅持不到白宮。

So Lincoln was moved to a house across the street from Ford's Theater. A doctor tried to remove the bullet from the president's head. He could not. Nothing could be done, except wait. The end was only hours away.

因此,林肯被抬到福特劇院對面的一棟房子里,醫生試圖把他頭部的子彈取出來,但是沒有成功,除了等待,已經沒有其它辦法了。

VOICE ONE:

A print showing President Lincoln on his death bed
A print showing President Lincoln on his death bed

Cabinet members began to arrive, while wild reports spread through the city: the Confederates had declared war again! There was fighting in the streets!

內閣官員聞訊紛紛趕到。各種傳聞甚囂塵上,有人說,南方邦聯又宣戰了,街上正在打仗。

An official of the War Department described the situation. "The extent of the plot was unknown. From so horrible a beginning, what might come next. How far would the bloody work go. The safety of Washington must be looked after. The people must be told. The assassin and his helpers must be captured."

一名戰爭部官員是這樣形容當時情況的:"這次暗殺陰謀的規模還不明朗。一開始就如此可怕,不知道接下來還會發生些什么。流血還要持續多久。我們一定要保證華盛頓的安全,一定要讓人民知情,一定要將刺客及其同伙緝拿歸案。"

VOICE TWO:

Early the next morning, April fifteenth, Abraham Lincoln died. A prayer was said over his body. His eyes were closed.

第二天,4月15號早上,林肯告別了人世。牧師禱告完畢,合上了林肯的雙眼。

The news went out by telegraph to cities and towns across the country. People read the words, but could not believe them. To millions of Americans, Abraham Lincoln's death was a personal loss. They had come to think of him as more than the President of the United States. He was a trusted friend.

林肯去世的消息通過電報傳往全國大小城鎮。人們聽到這個消息,簡直難以置信。對于數以百萬計的美國人來說,林肯的死是他們個人的損失。在人們看來,林肯不僅是總統,而且是一位值得信賴的朋友。

People hung black cloth on their doors in sorrow. Even the South mourned for Lincoln, its former enemy. Southern General Joe Johnston said: "Mr. Lincoln was the best friend we had. His death is the worst thing that could happen for the South."

人們在門上懸掛黑布,表示悲慟。就連林肯原先的敵人、南方人也紛紛悼念林肯。南方將領約翰斯頓說:"林肯先生是我們最好的朋友,他的死對南方來說,是可能發生的最糟糕的事情。"

VOICE ONE:

Messages of regret came from around the world.

世界各地紛紛發來唁電。

British labor groups said they could never forget the things Lincoln had said about working people. Things such as: "The strongest tie of human sympathy should be one uniting all working people of all nations and tongues."

英國的工人組織說,他們永遠忘不了林肯說的有關勞動者的話,比如,林肯曾說過,"人類同情心最堅韌的紐帶應該是不同國家和民族的所有勞動者的聯合。"

A group representing hundreds of French students sent this message:

一個代表數以百計的法國學生的組織發表電唁說,

"In President Lincoln we mourn a fellow citizen. There are no longer any countries shut up in narrow frontiers. Our country is everywhere where there are neither masters nor slaves. Wherever people live in liberty or fight for it. We look to the other side of the ocean to learn how a people which has known how to make itself free, knows how to preserve its freedom."

"我們把林肯總統作為同胞來悼念。世界上不再是被狹窄邊界所劃分的國家。凡是沒有奴隸主和奴隸的地方,就是我們的國家。凡是享有自由、或是有人為自由而戰的地方,都是我們的國家。我們遙望大洋彼岸,看一個知道如何去贏得自由的民族,也同樣理解如何去捍衛自由。"

The assassination of Abraham Lincoln touched the imagination of America's writers. Many tried to put their feelings into words. Walt Whitman wrote several poems of mourning. Here is part of one of them, "O Captain! My Captain!"

林肯遇刺觸發了很多美國作家的創作激情。很多人希望把情感付諸字端。著名詩人惠特曼就創作了好幾首哀悼的詩歌。其中一首題為"啊,船長!我的船長!"的詩中是這樣寫的:

READER:

Here captain! Dear father!

這里,船長,我親愛的父親!

This arm beneath your head!

讓你的頭枕著我的手臂!

It is some dream that on the deck,

真像是夢,躺在甲板上,

You've fallen cold and dead.

你已渾身冰涼,與世長辭。

My captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still,

我的船長沒有回答,他的嘴唇蒼白靜止,

My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will.

我的父親感覺不到我的手臂,他已經沒有脈搏,沒有意志。

The ship is anchor'd safe and sound, its voyage closed and done,

船已下錨,它的航程已經終了,

From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object won;

從可怕航程歸來,勝利的船只目的已達到。

Exult o shores, and ring o bells!

啊,海岸歡呼,鐘聲長鳴!

But I with mournful tread,

可我卻以悲痛的步履,

Walk the deck my captain lies,

漫步在船長躺著的甲板上,

Fallen cold and dead.

他已渾身冰涼,與世長辭。

VOICE TWO:

Walt Whitman
Walt Whitman

Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in the spring. That is the time of year when lilac plants burst into flower throughout much of the United States. One of Walt Whitman's most beautiful poems in honor of Lincoln is called, "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloomed." Here is part of that poem.

林肯是春天遇刺的,正是美國各地丁香盛開的季節?;萏芈o念林肯的最優美的詩歌之一名叫"當丁香在庭院最后綻放的時候",詩中說:

READER:

When lilacs last in the dooryard bloom'd

當丁香花在庭院中綻放的時候,

And the great star early droop'd in the western sky in the night,

碩大的星星在西方的夜空隕落,

I mourned, and yet shall mourn with ever-returning spring.

我哀悼,而且每逢春天都會哀悼。

Ever-returning spring, trinity sure to me you bring,

每年春天都會帶給我三件東西,

Lilac blooming perennial and drooping star in the west,

綻放的丁香,西方隕落的星星,

And thought of him I love. . .

還有對我敬愛的人的懷念......

Coffin that passes through lanes and streets,

穿過大街小巷的棺木,

Through day and night with the great cloud darkening the land. . .

經過白天黑夜,走過烏云籠罩的大地,

With the countless torches lit,

在無數火炬的照耀下,

With the silent sea of faces and the unbared heads. . .

千萬躥動的人頭如同沉默的大海,

With the tolling, tolling bells' perpetual clang,

喪鐘悠揚地鳴響,

Here, coffin that slowly passes,

對緩緩經過此處的棺木,

I give you my sprig of lilac.

我給你一支丁香。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Harold Berman and Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe, and the poems were read by Shep O'Neal. You can find transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs, plus historical images, at www.666321.live. And you can follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #117 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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