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#122: Rebuilding the South

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

In March of eighteen sixty-eight, Congress tried to remove President Andrew Johnson from office. But the Senate failed in the effort by one vote. Andrew Johnson was a Democrat. Congress was controlled by radical members of the Republican Party.

1868年3月,國會試圖彈劾安德魯·約翰遜總統。彈劾案在參議院以一票之差,沒有通過。安德魯·約翰遜總統是民主黨人,而當時的國會處于共和黨激進派的控制之下。

Most of the charges at Johnson's trial were based on his dismissal of the secretary of war. A new law said the president could not remove a cabinet officer without Senate approval. Johnson said the law was unconstitutional.

對約翰遜總統彈劾指控的大部分罪名都跟他解除戰爭部長的職務有關。一項新法律規定,未經參議院批準,總統不得解除內閣成員的職務。但是約翰遜總統認為,這項立法違憲。

The impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson
The impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson

The trial was an important turning point in the making of the nation. Removal from office would have established the idea that the president could serve only with the approval of Congress. The president would have become, in effect, a prime minister, requiring the support of Congress to remain in office. Andrew Johnson's victory kept alive the idea of an independent presidency.

安德魯·約翰遜總統的彈劾案是美國建國史上的一個重要轉折點。約翰遜如果真的遭到彈劾,那就意味著,總統必須得到國會的認可才能工作,總統也就變成了首相,要做下去,就一定要有國會支持。安德魯·約翰遜的勝利,等于是鞏固了總統的獨立地位。

Although Congress failed to remove him, the vote did not end a conflict with the White House over the future of the South. But it did have an effect on efforts to rebuild the South following the war.

總統彈劾案的結束,雖然沒能讓國會和白宮在南方前途問題上的沖突消失,但卻對戰后南方的重建努力帶來了影響。

Radical Republicans wanted to punish the South for starting the war. They also wanted to be sure new governments in the southern states would support the Republican Party.

激進派共和黨人認為,南方必須為挑起戰火受到懲罰,他們還希望確保南方各州新政府支持共和黨。

This week in our series, Doug Johnson and Frank Oliver tell about the reconstruction of the South.

DOUG JOHNSON:

One way radical Republicans gained support was by helping give blacks the right to vote. They knew former slaves would vote for the party which had freed them.

激進派共和黨人尋求支持的途徑之一是幫助黑人爭取投票權。他們知道,原來的這些奴隸一定會投票支持給他們自由的黨派。

Another way Republicans kept control in the South was by preventing whites from voting there. They passed a law saying no southerner could vote if he had taken part in the rebellion against the Union. This prevented the majority of southern whites from voting for Democrats and against Republicans.

共和黨人控制南方的另外一個辦法是,防止南方白人投票。他們通過了一項法律,規定凡是參加過份裂聯邦的反叛活動的南方人,一律不得投票,這就有效阻止了南方大多數白人把票投給民主黨人。

FRANK OLIVER:

Thomas Nast made this wood engraving of a carpetbagger
Thomas Nast made this wood engraving of a carpetbagger

Congress also made strong rules about what southern states had to do to re-enter the Union. It said each of the states needed a new constitution that protected the voting rights of all black men. And it said each southern state must approve an amendment to the United States Constitution that gave citizenship to blacks.

激進派共和黨控制的國會通過了很多強硬規定,對南方各州重返聯邦提出嚴格條件,要求它們制定新憲法,保護所有黑人的投票權,而且必須批準憲法修正案,讓黑人成為美國公民。

The radicals did not rest with changes in the law. They also sent their supporters south to organize blacks for the Republican Party. Many southern whites hated these men from the North. They had a special name for them: carpetbaggers.

激進派共和黨不僅修改了法律,而且還派自己的支持者到南方去,把黑人組織起來,支持共和黨。很多南方白人都恨透了這些北方佬,給這些人起了個外號,叫carpetbaggers。

The name arose because many of the northerners who went south arrived with all their possessions in a carpet handbag. Southerners also had a name for their own people who cooperated with the carpetbaggers. They called them scalawags. Neither name was friendly.

這些人被叫做 carpetbaggers,是因為很多到南方來的北方人,全部家當就裝在一個毯子做的手提包里,這種手提包叫 carpet bag,這些人自然也就成了 carpetbaggers. 南方人還很不友好地把跟這些北方佬合作的南方人叫做 scalawags,南方佬。

DOUG JOHNSON:

Southern whites had a reason to be bitter. They had lost the Civil War. Now much of their power was gone, and they were suffering. But there was another side to the story, as well.

南方白人之所以耿耿于懷,是因為他們打輸了內戰,失去了權力,日子很不好過。

Southern whites had held black people in slavery for many years. Now, the former slaves were getting to enjoy a small taste of freedom. Also, the South had started the Civil War which had caused so much death and destruction. It was not surprising that the North showed little sympathy when the fighting stopped and the South lay in ruins.

與此同時,多年來一直被南方白人當作奴隸的黑人,如今開始嘗到了自由的甜頭。 南方挑起內戰,給交戰雙方都帶來了巨大的人員傷亡和沉重的財產損失。戰爭結束后,南方一片廢墟,而北方卻毫不同情,這也不難理解。

Southern states organized conventions to form new governments. Soon, all but three southern states had new legislatures.

南方各州召集會議,成立新政府,沒過多久,南方除了三個州以外,都有了自己的新議會。

Not surprisingly, radical Republicans held firm control in every one of the new governments. Many of the new governors and state officials were carpetbaggers from outside the state. Others were southern scalawags.

毫不奇怪,南方每個州的新政府都在激進派共和黨人的牢牢控制之下。很多新當選的州長和政府官員都是外州來的 carpetbaggers 投機者,或是跟他們一個鼻孔出氣的南方佬,scalawags。

FRANK OLIVER:

Many of these new state officials were dishonest. They began using their power to become rich.

州政府里的很多官員開始貪贓枉法,濫用職權,中飽私囊。

In South Carolina, for example, the new governor was a former army officer from the state of Ohio. He gave government jobs to many dishonest men, including some who were wanted for crimes in other states.

以南卡羅來納州為例,那里的新州長原來是俄亥俄州的軍隊指揮官,他任用了很多不正派的人,甚至包括一些在其它州受到通緝的罪犯。

The same situation existed in other state governments in the South. In Louisiana, for example, the governor was a carpetbagger from the state of Illinois. He left office after four years with one million dollars. His official pay during that time was only thirty-two thousand dollars.

這種情況在南方很多州政府里都存在。比如,路易斯安那的州長就是從伊利諾伊來的投機者。他四年后離任時,帶走了一百萬美元,而他在這四年里每年的薪酬只有三萬兩千美元。

DOUG JOHNSON:

The South was not the only place where public officials were dishonest.

腐敗并不局限于南方。

The period after the Civil War in the United States was marked by several famous incidents involving violations of the public trust. Some of these incidents took place in the North, even in the White House. They were among the worst examples of dishonesty and poor government ever to take place in American history.

內戰結束后的那段時間里,美國發生了好幾起臭名昭著的貪贓枉法案,其中一些發生在北方,甚至發生在白宮里。這些貪贓枉法的事件是美國歷史上最駭人聽聞的。

It also is important to note that not everyone in the South was dishonest. The new state governments did many good things.

不過,南方人也不全都腐敗,新政府也做了不少好事。

They built roads and bridges, schools and hospitals. They improved transportation and education. They loaned money to companies to build railroads. Most important, they helped give hope to former slaves. These people were struggling to create a new life in the land of their former owners.

他們修筑公路、橋梁、學校和醫院,改善交通和教育,還給私人公司提供貸款,修建鐵路。最重要的是,他們讓剛剛獲得自由、努力重建新生活的奴隸看到了希望。

FRANK OLIVER:

So, the record of reconstruction in the South was mixed. Many southerners believe, even today, that reconstruction was a bitter time of defeat. But others now say this period after the Civil War was a necessary step in creating a different kind of South from the one which had existed before.

因此,人們對南方重建存在不同看法。即使是今天,很多南方人還是覺得,重建是戰敗后的痛苦時期,但是也有很多人認為,內戰結束后的重建期,是建立一個新南方的必要步驟。

Historians do agree that reconstruction changed the United States in several important ways. One of the most important changes was in the Constitution. Congress passed three historic amendments to the Constitution during this period.

歷史學家一致認為,南方重建給美國帶來了好幾方面的重要變化。其中最重要的變化之一就是憲法修正。在這段時間里,美國國會通過了三項具有歷史意義的憲法修正案。

DOUG JOHNSON:

The first was the Thirteenth Amendment. It ended slavery in the United States.

首先是憲法第十三修正案,結束了美國的奴隸制度。

The next was the Fourteenth Amendment. It said all persons born or naturalized in the United States were citizens of the United States and of the state in which they lived. It said no state could limit the rights of these citizens.

接下來是第十四修正案,規定凡是在美國出生、或是入籍歸化的人都是美國公民,都是他們所在州的公民,任何人都無權限制他們的公民權。

Finally, there was the Fifteenth Amendment. It said a citizen of the United States could not be prevented from voting because of his color.

最后是憲法第十五修正案,規定任何美國公民都不能因為膚色被剝奪投票權。

The Thirteenth Amendment freed all Negro slaves. The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments were supposed to protect their rights. These laws alone, however, did not succeed in doing this. It would take another century -- until Martin Luther King and other civil rights leaders -- to make these rights a reality.

第十三修正案解放了黑奴。第十四和十五兩項修正案保護了他們的權利。光靠這三項修正案,并未讓黑人真正獲得這些權利,直到一百年后,馬丁·路德金等民權領袖才讓這些權利真正變為現實。

Yet the passage of these three amendments to the Constitution was still a historic step in making blacks full and equal citizens.

盡管如此,這三項憲法修正案在讓黑人成為享受所有權利的公民方面,還是具有歷史性意義。

FRANK OLIVER:

These same laws and other actions of the radical Republicans changed the South in other -- less desirable, ways. They helped cause angry whites to form the Ku Klux Klan and other groups that terrorized blacks for years to come.

激進派共和黨人通過的這些法律和采取的行動也給南方帶來了一些負面影響,它們促使憤怒的白人成立三K黨等團體,不斷騷擾黑人。

The laws also increased bitterness between the North and South that lasted many years.

這些法律引起的南北間的相互怨恨也持續了很多年。

Reconstruction changed the economy of the South, too. White landowners broke up their big farms into smaller pieces of land. They rented these to black farmers. With the land came seed, tools and enough supplies for a year. In exchange for this, the owner would get a large share of the crop raised by the tenant farmer.

戰后重建還改變了南方的經濟體系。白人地主將自己的大農場分成小塊兒,出租給黑人耕種。黑人承租土地,就可以得到種子、農具和足夠一年用的供給;做為交換,地里收獲的糧食,一大部分歸土地主所有。

This system, called share-cropping, spread through the South. It lasted for almost one hundred years.

這種收益分成的系統在南方各地推廣使用,延續了將近一百年。

Share-cropping made it possible for blacks to work the land for themselves for the first time in their lives. But it also made it difficult for them to earn enough money to improve their condition. As a result, the majority of southern blacks remained in poverty. The system helped cause the South to be the poorest part of the United States for many years.

收益分成讓黑人有史以來第一次為自己種地,但同時又讓他們很難賺到足夠的錢,提高生活水平。結果是,南方的大多數黑人依然無法擺脫貧困。收益分成系統使南方變成了美國最窮的地區,持續了很多年。

DOUG JOHNSON:

The reconstruction period changed the face of the South and of the United States. The events of reconstruction also were central to one of the nation's most interesting presidential elections.

戰后重建改變了南方、乃至美國的面貌,也在接下來美國歷史上最有意思的總統大選中發揮了重要影響。

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY:

Our program was written by David Jarmul. The narrators were Doug Johnson and Frank Oliver. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.666321.live. And you can follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #122 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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作者:hliu
racial difference is always an severe issue in America,even today the president is black.
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