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#144: US Begins to Extend Its Influence Far Beyond Its Shores

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The destruction of the U.S. battleship Maine in Havana Harbor in 1898
The destruction of the U.S. battleship Maine in Havana Harbor in 1898

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:? Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

During the second half of the nineteenth century, the United States was not concerned much with events in other countries. It was too busy dealing with events inside its own borders. At that time, the nation was recovering from the Civil War. It was expanding to the West. And it was developing industries.

十九世紀后半葉,美國不太關心其它國家發生的事情,因為美國人都忙于處理國內的各種事物。那時的美國正在從內戰中復元,忙于向西部擴張,同時全力發展工業。

As production increased, the United States began trading more and more with other countries. At the same time, it needed a new foreign policy to defend its interests.

隨著工農業產品增多,美國與其它國家的貿易也越來越多。與此同時,美國需要新的外交政策來保護自身的利益。

This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Larry West discuss America's foreign policy in the late eighteen hundreds.

LARRY WEST: ??A growing number of lawmakers called for a new foreign policy. One was Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts. Lodge said the great nations of the world were taking control of the world's undeveloped areas. As one of the great nations, Lodge said, the United States must not fall out of this line of march.

越來越多的議員呼吁制訂新的對外政策。麻薩諸塞州的亨利.洛奇就是其中之一。他說,各大強國都在爭相控制世界上的欠發達地區。作為強國之一的美國也決不能掉隊。

Another lawmaker said: "Fate has written our policy. The trade of the world must and shall be ours." Some of these ideas came from the writings of Captain Alfred Mahan. He was head of America's Naval War College.

另一位議員說:"我們的政策是命運安排好的。美國應該、也必須參與世界貿易。"類似這樣的想法有些來自阿爾佛雷德.馬漢上尉所寫的書。馬漢是美國海軍軍事學院的院長。

Mahan wrote that all the great nations in history had possessed great sea power. He said the United States must build up its sea power, too, if it wanted to be a great nation.

他寫道,歷史上所有大國都擁有強大的海上勢力。如果美國想成為強國,就必須也建立自己的海上力量。

Sea power, Mahan said, was more than a strong navy. It was an economy that could produce goods for export. It was trade ships that could carry the goods. It was colonies that could supply raw materials and markets. And it was overseas naval bases that could defend American interests far from home.

馬漢說,海上力量不僅僅指強大的海軍,還指國民經濟可以生產用于出口的產品,能夠運輸商品的商船,能夠為本國提供原材料和市場的殖民地,還有在遙遠的海外可以保護美國利益的海軍基地。

MAURICE JOYCE:? The Washington Post newspaper described America's growing power this way:

華盛頓郵報這樣描述美國日益強大的國力:

"A new understanding seems to have come upon us, an understanding of our strength. And with it, a new feeling -- we want to show our strength. We are face-to-face with a strange fate. The taste of empire is in the mouth of the people."

"我們似乎正在形成一種新的認識,認識到我們的力量。隨這種力量而產生的是一種新的感覺,那就是,我們要展示這種力量。我們正面對一種陌生的未來,人們已經開始嘗到帝國的味道。"

The Washington Post was not speaking for everyone, of course. In fact, many American presidents of the late eighteen hundreds did not have this taste for empire. Yet they were forced to face the future. Changes were coming. And it was their responsibility to guide the nation through the changes.

當然,華盛頓郵報的話并不代表每個人的想法。事實上,十九世紀后期的許多任美國總統并沒有體會到這種帝國的味道,但他們不得不面對未來。變革正在來臨,而引導美國走過充滿變革的時代正是這些總統的責任。

For this reason, the United States entered into several agreements with foreign lands during the late eighteen hundreds.

正因為如此,在十九世紀末,美國先后與外國簽訂了幾份協議。

LARRY WEST:? In eighteen seventy-eight, for example, the United States signed a treaty with Samoa. The United States agreed to help the South Pacific islands settle any differences with other nations. A few years later, the treaty was put to a test.

例如,1878年,美國與薩摩亞群島簽訂了一個條約,同意幫助這個南太平洋島國解決與其它國家的糾紛。幾年后,這個條約就派上了用場。

A group of Germans living in Samoa forced the islands' ruler from power. They replaced him with a ruler who was more friendly to Germany.

一些生活在薩摩亞群島的德國人強行把該國的領導人趕下了臺,然后扶植了一個親德國的領導人。

For a time, it seemed the United States and Germany would go to war. But when American warships arrived in Samoa, so did a big storm. The storm smashed both American and German ships. Neither side was left with a force strong enough to fight.

一時間,美德戰爭似乎一觸即發。但當美國軍艦到達薩摩亞群島時,遭遇到了大風暴。風暴把美國和德國的軍艦盡數摧毀,雙方誰也沒有力量開戰了。

In eighteen eighty-nine, the United States, Germany, and Britain agreed that Samoa should be an independent kingdom. For ten years, local leaders attempted to establish a strong government. Their efforts failed. In eighteen ninety-nine, Germany took control of Samoa's large western islands. The United States took control of the smaller islands to the east.

1889年,美國、德國和英國一致同意薩摩亞群島應該成為一個獨立王國。此后十年,薩摩亞群島領導人試圖建立一個強大的政府,但沒有成功。1899年,德國控制了薩摩亞群島西部各大島,美國控制了東部幾個小島。

MAURICE JOYCE:? Events in another group of Pacific Ocean islands affected American foreign policy in the late eighteen hundreds. These were the Hawaiian islands.

夏威夷群島的事態發展也影響了美國十九世紀末的對外政策。

Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii
Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii

Hawaii was an important port for American trade ships sailing between the United States and China. Good relations between Hawaii and the United States were necessary to keep the port open to American ships.

對于航行在美國與中國之間的商船來說,夏威夷是十分重要的口岸。美國必須維持和夏威夷的良好關系,以確保那里的港口對美國船只開放。

In eighteen ninety-one, Liliuokalani became queen of Hawaii. She was not friendly to the United States. A group of American businessmen and planters in Hawaii plotted to oust her.

1891年,莉奧卡拉尼成了夏威夷的女王,她對美國不友好。于是,一些美國商人和夏威夷的種植園主就謀劃要把她趕下臺。

The group started an uprising. Then it called on the United States for protection. Queen Liliuokalani was forced to surrender. The businessmen and planters formed a new government. They wanted Hawaii to be part of the United States. By the end of the century, Congress had made Hawaii an American territory.

這些人發動起義,然后向美國尋求保護。莉奧卡拉尼女王被迫投降。商人和種植園主成立了一個新政府,他們要求把夏威夷變成美國的一部分。十九世紀末,美國國會通過決議,將夏威夷納入美國版圖。

LARRY WEST:? The United States also offered to serve as a negotiator in several international disputes during the late eighteen hundreds. One dispute involved Britain and Venezuela.

十九世紀后期,美國還主動提出在幾個國際爭端中充當斡旋國。其中之一是英國與委內瑞拉的爭端。

Both countries claimed land that bordered the British colony of Guiana on the northeast coast of South America. The situation became tense when gold was discovered in the disputed area. The United States offered to negotiate an agreement. Britain refused the offer. The United States offered again. Britain refused again.

南美洲東北海岸英國殖民地圭亞納旁邊有一塊土地,英國和委內瑞拉都聲稱對其擁有主權。后來,這里又發現了黃金,使局勢驟然緊張起來。美國兩次提議談判達成協議,都遭到英國拒絕。

Finally, President Grover Cleveland asked the United States Congress to appoint a committee to decide the border. Before the American committee had a chance to meet, Britain and Venezuela agreed to let an international committee decide.

最后,克利夫蘭總統要求國會成立一個委員會,裁定英國和委內瑞拉在這個地區的邊界。但是,委員會還沒來得及開會,英國和委內瑞拉就同意由一個國際委員會來裁定邊界。

MAURICE JOYCE:? In eighteen ninety-five, Cuban rebels revolted against the colonial government. They tried to destroy the economy of the island by burning private property.

1895年,古巴反政府分子發動針對殖民政府的起義。他們試圖靠燒毀私人財產來摧毀古巴經濟。

Spain sent a large force to Cuba to crush the revolt. Thousands of persons were arrested and put into prison camps. Many died of hunger and disease. Spain was denounced for its cruelty.

西班牙派一支龐大軍隊到古巴鎮壓起義。數千人被逮捕關押。許多人餓死病死。西班牙的暴行受到了譴責。

LARRY WEST:? It was difficult to get a true picture of what was happening in Cuba. American newspapers sent reporters to the island. But much of what they wrote about never happened. The reporters knew very well that exciting and horrifying stories sold newspapers. So, they made up stories about bloody battles and Spanish cruelty. One incident has become famous in American newspaper history.

當時,人們很難了解古巴到底發生了什么。美國報紙派出記者前往古巴采訪,但記者們寫的許多事從未發生。記者們深知,煽情和恐怖的故事最能讓報紙暢銷,所以他們編造了許多關于血腥戰斗和西班牙暴行的新聞。其中一件事還成為美國報紙歷史上的著名事件。

William Randolph Hearst
William Randolph Hearst

Publisher William Randolph Hearst sent artist Frederic Remington to Cuba to paint pictures of the fighting. Remington spent several months in Havana. He saw no fighting. He sent Hearst a message. Things were quiet, Remington said. There would be no war. Hearst sent back this answer: "You supply the pictures. I'll supply the war."

出版商赫斯特派畫家雷明頓到古巴,畫當地的戰斗場面。雷明頓在哈瓦那待了好幾個月,什么戰斗場面都沒看到。于是他給赫斯特寫了一封信,說這里很平靜,不會發生戰爭。赫斯特給他回信說:"你提供畫作,我提供戰爭。"

MAURICE JOYCE:? The newspaper built up strong public feeling against Spain. Soon, many Americans were calling for war to free Cuba from Spanish rule.

這份報紙的報導使美國公眾對西班牙產生了強烈的憤慨。很快,許多美國人呼吁政府向西班牙宣戰,把古巴從西班牙統治下解放出來。

William McKinley was president. He did not want the United States to become involved. He did, however, offer to help Spain find a solution that would return peace to the island. Spain refused the offer. It attempted to improve the situation in Cuba by itself.

當時的美國總統是麥金利,他不想讓美國卷入此事。然而,他還是主動提出幫西班牙找個解決辦法,讓古巴恢復和平。但西班牙拒絕了美國的提議,準備自己來改善古巴局勢。

Spain called home the military commander accused of cruelty. It stopped putting people in prison camps. It offered equal political rights to all Cubans. And it promised them self-rule in the future.

西班牙把被指責太過殘暴的將領從古巴召回,不再把古巴人關進犯人營,給予古巴人平等的政治權利。西班牙還許諾說,將來古巴人可以自治。

LARRY WEST:? President McKinley welcomed Spain's policy statements. He felt Spain should be left alone to honor its promises to the Cuban people. He said the United States would not interfere. At about that time, however, riots broke out in Havana. President McKinley said it was his responsibility to protect the lives and property of Americans living there. So, he sent the battleship "Maine" to Havana.

麥金利總統歡迎西班牙的政策聲明。他覺得外界應讓西班牙自己去履行向古巴人許下的諾言。他說,美國不會干涉古巴事件。然而,大約就在那個時候,哈瓦那發生了暴亂。麥金利總統說,他有責任保護生活在那里的美國人的生命財產安全,于是他派遣"緬因號"軍艦前往哈瓦那。

During the early weeks of eighteen ninety-eight, President McKinley waited for Spain to act on its promises to Cuba. He saw little progress. Relations between the United States and Spain became tense. Then, on the night of February fifteenth, a powerful explosion shook the battleship Maine in Havana harbor. The ship sank. More than two hundred fifty American sailors were dead.

在1898年頭幾個星期里,麥金利總統等待西班牙履行諾言,但他沒有看到什么進展,美國與西班牙之間的關系變得緊張起來。1898年2月15日夜間,在哈瓦那港口停泊的"緬因號"發生大爆炸。軍艦沉沒了,艦上的250多名美國海員喪生。

MAURICE JOYCE:? No one knew what caused the explosion on the battleship Maine. The United States said it was an underwater bomb. Spain said it was something on the ship itself.

沒有人知道爆炸的原因。美國說是一枚水下炸彈引起的,西班牙說是緬因號自身的問題引起的。

There was some evidence the explosion was caused by an accident in the ship's fuel tanks. Yet some people in the United States blamed Spain anyway. They demanded war. They cried: "Remember the Maine!"

有一些證據表明,"緬因號"爆炸是由于燃料箱發生了事故。然而,一些美國人還是把矛頭指向西班牙。他們要求政府向西班牙開戰,并大聲疾呼:"讓我們銘記緬因號!"

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:? Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Larry West. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.666321.live. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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