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#147: Occupation of Philippines Makes US a Major Power in the Far East

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The Battle of Manila in 1899 help push public opinion in America toward taking possession of the Philippines
The Battle of Manila in 1899 help push public opinion in America toward taking possession of the Philippines

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

The war between the United States and Spain in eighteen ninety-eight was one of the shortest in American history. The fighting lasted about three months.

1898年美國與西班牙之間的戰爭是美國歷史上持續時間最短的戰爭之一。交戰大約只持續了三個月。

Yet that short war led to long-term changes for America. Victory made the United States an increasingly important world power.

然而,這次短暫的戰爭卻給美國帶來了長遠的變化。美國的勝利使其成為日益重要的世界強國。

This week in our series, Larry West and Shep O'Neal tell about those developments.

本周,我們就為您講述美西戰爭后美國歷史上出現的新動向。

LARRY WEST: The United States received several of Spain's island colonies as part of the peace agreement. The most important was the Philippines.

根據美國與西班牙簽訂的和平協議,美國得到了原屬西班牙的幾個殖民地島嶼,其中最重要的就是菲律賓。

Many Americans thought the United States should not have overseas territories. But President William McKinley thought the Philippines were unprepared for independence. He decided to keep the islands and prepare the people for self-government in the future.

當時許多美國人認為,美國不應該擁有海外領地,但美國總統麥金利認為,菲律賓人還沒有做好獨立自治的準備,因此他決定占領菲律賓,再幫助那里的人民為將來自治作準備。

A Filipino nationalist group led by Emilio Aguinaldo rejected American control. Aguinaldo declared the formation of a Philippine republic. And he started a guerrilla war against the occupying forces.

一支由埃米利奧.阿奎納多領導的菲律賓民族主義力量反對美國的占領。阿奎納多宣布成立菲律賓共和國,并且開始發動針對美國占領軍的游擊戰。

SHEP O'NEAL: The rebellion in the Philippines became a major issue in America's presidential election of nineteen hundred.

菲律賓起義成了美國1900年總統大選的重要議題。

The Republican Party renominated William McKinley as president. And it nominated a hero of the Spanish-American War, New York Governor Theodore Roosevelt, as vice president. The Democratic Party, for the second time, nominated Congressman William Jennings Bryan as president. It nominated a former vice president, Adlai Stevenson, as vice president again.

共和黨提名現任總統麥金利競選連任,并提名美西戰爭中的英雄、紐約州州長西奧多.羅斯福為副總統候選人。民主黨再次提名國會眾議員布萊恩為總統候選人,并提名前副總統阿德萊.史蒂文森為副總統候選人。

LARRY WEST: William Jennings Bryan campaigned against the American takeover of the Philippines. He received support from a new group, the Anti-Imperialist League. Members included leading American politicians, businessmen, and writers.

布萊恩的競選主題是反對美國占領菲律賓。為此,他得到了新成立的"反帝國主義聯盟"的支持。該組織成員包括美國的政商名流和知名作家。

President McKinley did not campaign much. He let vice presidential candidate Theodore Roosevelt do it. Roosevelt spoke of America's success as a new economic and political power in the world. He said the Republican Party was responsible.

現任總統麥金利并沒有參加什么競選活動,他把這些工作交給了副總統候選人西奧多.羅斯福。羅斯福說,作為世界上一個新的經濟和政治大國,美國已經取得了成功。對此,共和黨功不可沒。

The majority of voters liked what Roosevelt said. They elected the Republican candidates.

絕大多數選民贊同羅斯福的觀點,于是在選舉中,他們選擇了共和黨候選人。

SHEP O'NEAL: The Republican victory destroyed the hopes of many nationalists in the Philippines. With William McKinley in the White House again, they saw little chance of gaining independence. Nationalist leader Emilio Aguinaldo, however, refused to surrender. As long as he remained free, the guerrilla war would continue.

共和黨在總統大選中獲勝打破了許多菲律賓民族主義者的希望。隨著麥金利再次入主白宮,他們已經看不到菲律賓獨立的機會了。然而,他們的領導人埃米利奧.阿奎納多拒絕投降,只要他還自由,游擊戰就繼續打下去。

For months, American forces tried without success to find him. Finally, with the help of a tribe of Filipino mercenary soldiers called the Maccabebe Scouts, they captured him. Aguinaldo signed an agreement to support the United States.

美軍一連幾個月想把他逮起來,但都沒有成功。最后,在一支叫馬加比比·斯考特的菲律賓部落雇傭兵的幫助下,美軍終于抓到了阿奎納多。阿奎納多在支持美國的協議上簽了字。

With this agreement, the rebellion ended on the island of Luzon. But it continued for more than a year in the southern Philippines. Hostilities ended officially on July fourth, nineteen-oh-two.

根據這項協議,民族主義隊伍停止了呂宋島上的起義。但在菲律賓南部,起義又持續了一年多。最終,在1902年7月4日,菲律賓反抗美國占領的武裝斗爭正式宣告結束。

LARRY WEST: American occupation of the Philippines made the United States a major power in the Far East. As such, it began to develop new policies toward Asia. Especially a new policy toward China.

占領菲律賓使美國確立了在遠東地區的強大地位。美國因此開始制定新的亞洲政策,特別是針對中國的新政策。

Americans had been trading with China for years, but not heavily. As the American economy grew, however, businessmen saw China -- with a population of four hundred million people -- as a great market for American products.

多年來,美國一直與中國進行貿易往來,但貿易額并不大。隨著美國經濟的發展,美國商人意識到,中國這個擁有四億人口的大國對美國商品來說是一個巨大的市場。

Other countries were interested in this market, too. Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and Russia all claimed special rights in parts of China. They began to divide the country into areas called spheres of influence. It seemed these areas could become foreign colonies. Then the United States would be cut off from trading directly with China.

不過,其它國家也垂涎這個市場。英國、法國、德國、日本和俄羅斯都在中國獲得了特殊利益,它們開始在中國瓜分勢力范圍。如果勢力范圍變成殖民地,美國與中國的直接貿易就將被切斷。

To prevent that from happening, American Secretary of State John Hay proposed what became known as the "Open Door" policy.

為了避免出現這種情況,美國國務卿約翰.海伊提出了著名的"門戶開放"政策。

SHEP O'NEAL: Secretary Hay asked the nations involved to agree to equal trading rights for all countries in all parts of China. No nation, he said, should interfere with the rights or powers of any other nation in China.

他要求所有有關國家同意,各國在中國各處有平等的貿易權。海伊說,任何國家都不能干涉別國在中國的利益或權利。

No one welcomed the proposal. But no one rejected it, either. Most of the nations involved said they agreed with the idea. But they said they could not approve it unless everyone else did.

沒有一個國家歡迎這項政策,但也沒有一個國家明確反對。大多數有關國家表示,它們同意美國的想法,但不能批準這一政策,除非其它所有國家都批準。

Secretary Hay refused to wait for them to act. So in May, nineteen hundred, he announced that all the nations involved had given their approval to the "Open Door" policy.

海伊不愿坐等這些國家采取行動,于是在1900年5月宣布,所有在中國的國家都已經批準了他的"門戶開放"政策。

The new policy was tested very soon. Within a month of Hay's announcement, violence broke out against foreigners in China.

這項新政策很快就受到了考驗。在海伊宣布"門戶開放"政策后不到一個月,中國爆發了針對所有外國人的暴力活動。

LARRY WEST: The attacks were led by a secret group called Righteous, Harmonious Fists. Foreigners called its members Boxers.

這些襲擊由一個名為義和拳的秘密組織領導。外國人把義和團的成員稱為"Boxer"。

Boxers hated all foreign influence in China. They organized in areas where foreign influence was strongest. They killed Christian missionaries and Chinese who had accepted the Christian religion. They also destroyed foreign industries, especially railroads.

義和拳痛恨所有在中國的外國勢力,他們在外國勢力最集中的地方活動,殺死基督教傳教士和信基督教的中國人,他們還毀壞外國人建的工業設施,特別是鐵路。

The Chinese government in Beijing supported the Boxer Rebellion. It permitted the Boxers to occupy the capital.

北京的滿清政府支持義和團運動,允許義和團占領北京。

The rebellion lasted about two months. It ended when an allied force of American, British, French, German and Japanese soldiers reached Beijing and ended the Boxer occupation.

義和團持續了大約兩個月,在美國、英國、德國和日本聯軍攻占北京后,義和團被消滅了。

SHEP O'NEAL: The foreign powers began to negotiate with China on paying for damages. The United States was worried about the results. It believed some of the nations involved would use the Boxer Rebellion as a way to gain more control over Chinese territory.

外國勢力開始與中國政府談判,要求中國政府賠款。美國對談判結果感到擔心。因為美國認為,一些國家會以義和團運動為借口,趁機擴大自己在中國的控制權。

Secretary of State Hay quickly announced America's policy on the issue. The United States, he said, wanted a settlement which would bring peace and safety to China. The settlement must protect China's territorial rights so it would not be divided into foreign colonies.

于是,美國國務卿海伊迅速宣布了美國在此問題上的立場。他說,美國希望給中國帶來和平與安全,各方達成的解決辦法必須能保護中國的領土主權,它不能被各國瓜分,淪為殖民地。

Britain and Germany agreed. With their help, Secretary Hay got the others to accept money -- not territory -- as payment for damages.

英國和德國對此表示同意。在它們的幫助下,海伊說服其它各國接受賠款,而不是用獲得中國領土的方式獲得戰爭賠償。

The final settlement forced China to pay three hundred thirty-three million dollars. The United States used some of its share to pay for the education of Chinese students in America.

最終各方簽定《辛丑條約》,強迫中國政府賠償3億3千3百萬美元。美國用它所分得的部分賠款作為獎學金,支付赴美中國留學生的學費。

LARRY WEST: The results of the Boxer Rebellion and the Spanish-American War made clear that the new century would have a new world power: the United States. And this new power had a president with the political skills to do the job: William McKinley.

中國義和團起義和美西戰爭的結果都清楚地表明,在新世紀到來之時,世界出現了新的強國,這就是美國,而且美國還有一位擁有嫻熟政治技巧的總統,即麥金利總統。

In September, nineteen-oh-one, President McKinley made a major foreign policy speech at the Pan-American Fair in Buffalo, New York. He spoke about the importance and the promise of America's new position in the world.

1901年9月,麥金利總統在紐約州布法羅市舉辦的泛美博覽會上發表重要的外交政策演講。他談到了美國新國際地位的重要性和前景。

The next day, President McKinley went to the fair's temple of music. He planned to spend several hours meeting the public and shaking hands.

第二天,他出席博覽會的音樂會,打算花幾個小時與公眾會面,同大家握手。

SHEP O'NEAL: A young man waited in line to see him. When the young man stepped in front of McKinley, McKinley reached out to shake his hand. Two shots rang out from a gun the man had hidden under a cloth. One of the bullets struck McKinley in the stomach.

有個年輕男子排隊等待總統的接見。當他站在麥金利總統面前時,麥金利伸出手,要和他握手。就在此時,他從衣服里掏出槍,開了兩槍。其中一槍打中了總統的腹部。

The president was taken to an emergency hospital on the fairgrounds. He was not conscious. The bullet had damaged his stomach, pancreas, and one kidney. But doctors did not believe he was in danger of dying.

麥金利被送到博覽會所設的緊急醫院,那時他已經昏迷了。這顆子彈打傷了他的胃、胰腺和一個腎。但醫生們認為,總統并沒有生命危險。

LARRY WEST: The man who shot McKinley was Leon Czolgosz. Czolgosz was an anarchist. He believed all rulers were enemies of the people. He believed the people had the right to kill them.

這個向麥金利總統開槍的人叫利昂·喬爾戈什,是個無政府主義者。他認為所有的統治者都是人民的敵人,人民有權殺死這些統治者。

Czolgosz also was mentally ill. He had tried to join several anarchist groups. They refused to accept him, however, because of his mental condition.

他還是一個精神病患者。喬爾戈什曾經想加入幾個無政府組織,但都因為有精神病而遭到拒絕。

After shooting President McKinley, Czolgosz explained why he had done it. He said it was not right for one man to receive so much public honor, while he received none.

在向總統開槍后,喬爾戈什解釋了他這么做的原因。他說,他自己什么也得不到,但總統一人卻獲得了這么多公眾贊譽,這是不對的。

SHEP O'NEAL: For two days, the president remained in a coma. Then his condition changed. He regained consciousness and was able to talk. He rested and became stronger.

總統昏迷了兩天。隨后,他的健康狀況有所好轉,恢復了意識,并可以說話了。他休息了一陣子,身體狀況進一步好轉。

Then the president's condition changed again. An infection developed in his wound. It spread throughout his body. In another few days, he was dead.

可很快,情況又開始惡化,傷口感染,而且感染漫延到全身。沒過幾天,麥金利總統就去逝了。

LARRY WEST: Vice President Roosevelt hurried to Buffalo. He went to the house where the president's body lay. Then he went to another house to be sworn in as president. He was forty-two years old -- the youngest man ever to hold the office.

副總統西奧多·羅斯福急忙趕到了布法羅。他先到停放總統遺體的地方吊唁,隨后到另一個地方宣誓就任總統。那年他42歲,成為美國歷史上最年輕的總統。

Roosevelt declared that the administration would go on as before. "It is my aim," he said, "to continue unbroken the policy of President McKinley for the peace, the prosperity, and the honor of our beloved country."

羅斯福宣布,政府會按步就班地運轉。他說:"我的目標是繼續執行麥金利總統的政策,實現美國的和平、繁榮和榮耀。"

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Larry West and Shep O'Neal. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.666321.live. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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作者:鄭烈波
roosevelt declared that the administration would go on as before.
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