官方APP下載:英語全能特訓(微信小程序版,支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
創辦于2003年
UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
  Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
公眾微信服務號
英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
客服短信:18913948480
客服郵箱:[email protected]
初級VIP會員
全站英語學習資料下載。
¥98元/12個月

#15: How the Constitution Came to Life

閱讀次數:


VIP會員專享下載:(非VIP會員無權下載!如果想下載,但還不是VIP會員,請點此訂購
下載方式:使用鼠標右鍵(注意是鼠標右鍵?。c擊下面的MP3音頻/MP4視頻鏈接,然后選擇“另存為…”。
MP3節目錄音(英文版) MP3節目錄音(英文版)  MP3節目錄音(中文版) MP3節目錄音(中文版)  PDF節目文稿 PDF節目文稿 
文章正文
同步字幕

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

The United States became a nation in seventeen seventy-six. Less than a century later, in the eighteen sixties, it was nearly torn apart. A civil war took place, the only one in the nation's history. States from the North and the South fought against each other. The conflict involved the right of the South to leave the Union and deal with issues -- especially the issue of slavery -- its own way.

美國1776年獨立建國,但是不到一百年后,又險些一分為二。十九世紀六十年代爆發的南北戰爭是美國歷史上唯一一場內戰。南北雙方反目為仇,自相殘殺。南北戰爭主要圍繞著南方各州是否有權脫離聯邦,自行處理內部事務,特別是奴隸制度。

This week in our series, Frank Oliver and Tony Riggs describe how the Constitution survived this very troubled time in American history.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Detail of a Civil War drawing by Alfred R. Waud published in Harper's Weekly in October 1863
Detail of a Civil War drawing by Alfred R. Waud published in Harper's Weekly in October 1863

America's Civil War lasted four years. Six hundred thousand men were killed or wounded. In the end, the slaves were freed, and the Union was saved.

南北戰爭歷時四年,死傷多達60萬人。戰爭結束時,奴隸獲得了自由,聯邦也完整地保留了下來。

Abraham Lincoln was president during the Civil War. He said the southern states did not have the right to leave the Union. Lincoln firmly believed that the Union of states was permanent under the Constitution. In fact, he noted, one of the reasons for establishing the Constitution was to form a more perfect Union. His main goal was to save what the Constitution had created.

內戰期間,林肯擔任總統。他堅信,根據憲法,美國各州組成的聯邦是永久性的,因此南部各州無權脫離聯邦。林肯還提出,制定憲法的目的之一是建立一個更為完善的聯邦,他的核心任務就是挽救聯邦。

VOICE ONE:

One cannot truly understand the United States without understanding its Constitution. That political document describes America's system of government and guarantees the rights of all citizens. Its power is greater than any president, court or legislature.

要想了解美國,首先要了解美國的憲法。這份政治文件規定了美國的政府體制,保證了公民的權利。憲法的權力高于總統、法院和國會。

In the coming weeks, we will tell the story of the United States Constitution. We will describe the drama of its birth in Philadelphia in seventeen eighty-seven. And we will describe the national debate over its approval. Before we do, however, we want to tell how that document provides for change without changing the basic system of government.

在接下來的幾周里,我們要詳細介紹美國憲法,從1787年憲法在費城的誕生起,到圍繞憲法展開的全民辯論,但是首先我們要講講,美國憲法是如何在確保根本政府體制不變的前提下為變革創造空間的。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

If you ask Americans about their Constitution, they probably will talk about the Bill of Rights. These are the first ten changes, or amendments, to the Constitution. They contain the rights of all people in the United States. They have the most direct effect on people's lives.

被問到美國憲法時,大多數美國人可能都會提到《權利法案》?!稒嗬ò浮肥敲绹鴳椃ǖ那笆畟€修正案,涉及美國所有人的權利,對人民的生活有著最直接的影響。

Among other things, the Bill of Rights guarantees freedom of speech, religion, and the press. It also establishes rules to guarantee that a person suspected of a crime is treated fairly.

《權利法案》保證人民有言論自由、宗教信仰自由、新聞自由,還保證犯罪嫌疑人能夠得到公平的對待。

VOICE ONE:

U.S. Constitution
U.S. Constitution

The Bill of Rights was not part of the document signed at the convention in Philadelphia in seventeen eighty-seven. The delegates believed that political freedoms were basic human rights. So, some said it was not necessary to express such rights in a Constitution.

《權利法案》并不是1787年在費城簽署的憲法的組成部分。當時,有些大陸會議的代表們認為,政治自由是基本人權,所以不必寫進憲法里。

Most Americans, however, wanted their rights guaranteed in writing. That is why most states approved the new Constitution only on condition that a Bill of Rights would be added. This was done, and the amendments became law in seventeen ninety-one.

然而,大多數美國人還是希望自己的權利能落實在白紙黑字上,所以大多數州都表示,只有把《權利法案》加進去,才會批準新憲法。結果是,《權利法案》于1791年正式成為法律。

VOICE TWO:

One early amendment involved the method of choosing a president and vice president. In America's first presidential elections, the man who received the most votes became president. The man who received the second highest number of votes became vice president. It became necessary to change the Constitution, however, after separate political parties developed. Then ballots had to show the names of each candidate for president and vice president.

早期的一項修正案是關于總統選舉的。在美國獨立建國后的第一次總統選舉中,得票最多的人當選總統,得票第二多的人當選副總統。然而,多個政黨的出現,要求對憲法進行修正,選票上必須分別列出總統和副總統候選人的名字。

VOICE ONE:

The 15th Amendment gave male citizens the right to vote regardless of race, color or previous condition of slavery
The 15th Amendment gave male citizens the right to vote regardless of race, color or previous condition of slavery

There were no other amendments for sixty years. The next one was born in the blood of civil war. During the war, President Abraham Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation. That document freed the slaves in the states that were rebelling against the Union. It was not until after Lincoln was murdered, however, that the states approved the Thirteenth Amendment to ban slavery everywhere in the country.

接下來的60年里沒有出現更多的憲法修正案,直到南北戰爭期間,林肯總統公布《解放宣言》,給造反的各州奴隸自由。但是直到林肯遇刺身亡后,這些州才批準了憲法第13修正案,徹底廢除奴隸制度。1868年通過的第14修正案規定,任何州都不得限制公民的權利。

The Fourteenth Amendment, approved in eighteen sixty-eight, said no state could limit the rights of any citizen. And the Fifteenth, approved two years later, said a person's right to vote could not be denied because of his race, color, or former condition of slavery.

1870年通過的第15修正案規定,不能因為種族、膚色、或是以前的奴隸身份而剝奪任何人的投票權。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

By the eighteen nineties, the federal government needed more money than it was receiving from taxes on imports. It wanted to establish a tax on earnings. It took twenty years to win approval for the Sixteenth Amendment. The amendment permits the government to collect income taxes.

我們介紹過美國建國后通過的很多憲法修正案。到十九世紀九十年代的時候,聯邦政府對進口商品征收的稅已經不足以支持政府的運作了。第16修正案經過20年的時間才得到批準,允許政府征收所得稅。

Another amendment proposed in the early nineteen hundreds was designed to change the method of electing United States Senators. For more than one hundred years, senators were elected by the legislatures of their states. The Seventeenth Amendment, approved in nineteen thirteen, gave the people the right to elect senators directly.

二十世紀初提出了另外一項修正案,目的是要改變參議員的選舉方式。美國建國后的一百多年間,參議員都是由州議會推選的。1913年通過的第17修正案規定,參議員由選民直接選舉產生。

VOICE ONE:

In nineteen nineteen, the states approved an amendment to ban the production, transportation, and sale of alcohol. Alcohol was prohibited. It could not be produced or sold legally anywhere in the United States.

1919年,美國各州通過了禁止造酒、運酒和賣酒的修正案。

The amendment, however, did not stop the flow of alcohol. Criminal organizations found many ways to produce and sell it illegally. Finally, after thirteen years, Americans decided that Prohibition had failed. It had caused more problems than it had solved. So, in nineteen thirty-three, the states approved another constitutional amendment to end the ban on alcohol.

然而,這一修正案無法順利實施。犯罪團伙找到了各種非法造酒和賣酒的方法。13年后,美國人承認禁酒失敗。這一修正案造成的問題比解決的問題還要多。1933年,各州又通過了新的憲法修正案,結束禁酒。

VOICE TWO:

Other amendments in the twentieth century include one that gives women the right to vote. It became part of the Constitution in nineteen twenty. Another amendment limits a president to two four-year terms in office. And the Twenty-sixth Amendment gives the right to vote to all persons who are at least eighteen years old.

二十世紀通過的其他憲法修正案給予了婦女投票權,規定總統最多只能連任兩屆,每屆四年。第26條修正案規定,18歲以上的公民都有投票權。

The Twenty-seventh Amendment has one of the strangest stories of any amendment to the United States Constitution. This amendment establishes a rule for increasing the pay of senators and representatives. It says there must be an election between the time Congress votes to increase its pay and the time the pay raise goes into effect.

第27條修正案規定在國會投票決定是否要給自己漲工資和漲工資正式生效之間,一定要有一次選舉。這項修正案最早是1789年提出的。

The amendment was first proposed in seventeen eighty-nine. Like all amendments, it needed to be approved by three-fourths of the states. This did not happen until nineteen ninety-two. So, one of the first amendments to be proposed was the last amendment to become law.

根據規定,修正案必須得到四分之三的州批準才能生效,所以一直拖到1992年。因此說,美國最早提出的修正案之一也是最后一個成為法律的。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

The twenty-seven amendments added to the Constitution have not changed the basic system of government in the United States. The government still has three separate and equal parts: the executive branch, the legislative branch, and the judicial branch. The three parts balance each other. No part is greater than another.

上面講到的27項憲法修正案并沒有改變美國根本的政府體制。美國始終是行政、立法和司法三權分立,互相制衡。

The first American states had no strong central government when they fought their war of independence from Britain in seventeen seventy-six. They cooperated under an agreement called the Articles of Confederation. The agreement provided for a Congress. But the Congress had few powers. Each state governed itself.

美國1776年獨立戰爭打響時,沒有一個強大的聯邦政府。各州合作根據的是當時的《邦聯條例》?!栋盥摋l例》要求建立國會,但國會權力有限。各州還是自行管理。

VOICE TWO:

When the war ended, the states owed millions of dollars to their soldiers. They also owed money to European nations that had supported the Americans against Britain.

獨立戰爭結束后,各州拖欠士兵數百萬美元,獨立戰爭中支持美國的歐洲國家也成了美國的債主。

The new United States had no national money to pay the debts. There was an American dollar. But not everyone used it. And it did not have the same value everywhere.

當時,美國國庫空虛,無法還債,雖然美元已經存在,但沒有普遍流通,各地美元的價值也存在差異。

The situation led to economic ruin for many people. They could not pay the money they owed. They lost their property. They were put in prison. Militant groups took action to help them. They interfered with tax collectors. They terrorized judges and burned court buildings.

這種局面給很多人造成了經濟上的災難,他們無法還債,喪失了財產,被送進監牢。一些民兵團體為了幫助他們,擾亂稅務人員的工作,恐嚇法官,焚燒法院大樓。

VOICE ONE:

The situation was especially bad in the northeast part of the country. In Massachusetts, a group led by a former soldier tried to seize guns and ammunition from the state military force.

美國東北地區的情況尤其糟糕。在麻薩諸塞州,一群人在退伍軍官謝斯的帶領下,企圖從軍隊手中奪取槍支和彈藥。

Shays' Rebellion, as it was called, was stopped. But from north to south, Americans were increasingly worried and frightened. Would the violence continue? Would the situation get worse?

謝斯起義最后被鎮壓,但是從北到南,各地的美國人都陷入了嚴重的恐慌,擔心暴力會繼續下去,局面會進一步惡化。

VOICE TWO:

Many Americans distrusted the idea of a strong central government. After all, they had just fought a war to end British rule. Yet Americans of different ages, education, and social groups felt that something had to be done. If not, the new nation would fail before it had a chance to succeed. These were the opinions and feelings that led, in time, to the writing of the United States Constitution.

很多美國人對一個強大的聯邦政府心存芥蒂,畢竟,他們剛剛結束的戰爭就是為了擺脫英國的統治。不過與此同時,不同年齡、不同文化程度、不同社會群體的人又都覺得,必須要做些什么才行。否則的話,這個新獨立的國家就完全沒有機會成功。這種看法最終導致了美國憲法的誕生。

That will be our story in the coming weeks of THE MAKING OF A NATION.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Christine Johnson and read by Tony Riggs and Frank Oliver. Transcripts and MP3s of our programs are at www.666321.live. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION, an American history series in VOA Special English.

網友的學習評論(2條):
作者:華晨
The Bill of Rights guarantees freedom of speech, reglion and the press. It aslo establishes rules to guarantee that a person suspected of a crime is treated fairly.
作者:xuding45
A new constitution was writed in the paper in the United States。Many states join into the county,the constitution come in peoples' soul.
版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
網站備案:蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
廣播臺
中国北京福彩中心地址 豪利棋牌每天送救济金 贵州快3几点结束 喜乐棋牌填大坑挂下载 德甲联赛最新积分榜 麻将二八杠用多少牌 快乐8走势图 新疆11选五5开奖 幸运赛车的网址 安徽11选五开奖走势图 一定牛 快速赛车开奖官网结果