官方APP下載:英語全能特訓(微信小程序版,支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
創辦于2003年
UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
  Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
公眾微信服務號
英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
客服短信:18913948480
客服郵箱:[email protected]
初級VIP會員
全站英語學習資料下載。
¥98元/12個月

#155: Woodrow Wilson Takes Office Seeking Tax, Banking and Business Reform

閱讀次數:


VIP會員專享下載:(非VIP會員無權下載!如果想下載,但還不是VIP會員,請點此訂購
下載方式:使用鼠標右鍵(注意是鼠標右鍵?。c擊下面的MP3音頻/MP4視頻鏈接,然后選擇“另存為…”。
MP3節目錄音(英文版) MP3節目錄音(英文版)  MP3節目錄音(中文版) MP3節目錄音(中文版)  PDF節目文稿 PDF節目文稿 
文章正文
同步字幕
Woodrow Wilson and his cabinet seated around table, 1913
Woodrow Wilson and his cabinet seated around table, 1913

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

A new leader stood before the American people on March fourth, nineteen thirteen. He was Woodrow Wilson -- the twenty-eighth president of the United States.

1913年3月4日,一位新的國家領導人站在了美國人民的面前,他就是伍德羅.威爾遜,美國歷史上第28任總統。

Wilson belonged to the Democratic Party. He was progressive in his belief that government should take an active part in efforts for social reforms.

威爾遜是民主黨人,他相信進步派理念,認為政府應該在社會改革中發揮積極作用。

This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe begin the story of Wilson's presidency.

KAY GALANT: Woodrow Wilson had spent most of his life at Princeton University. First he was a professor. Then he was university president. Next, Wilson was elected governor of the state of New Jersey. His early success as governor made him a leading candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in nineteen twelve.

伍德羅.威爾遜一生的大部分時間在普林斯頓大學度過。開始時,他在那里做教授,后來成為校長。之后他又當選新澤西州的州長。當上州長之后沒多久,因為政績不俗,他成為1912年民主黨總統候選人提名大會上呼聲很高的候選人。

Wilson traveled widely around the country during the campaign. He made speeches to many groups. He tried to make himself and his ideas known to as many Americans as possible.

在競選期間,威爾遜的足跡遍布全國各地。他向眾多社會群體發表演講,盡可能讓更多的美國人了解他和他的治國理念。

HARRY MONROE: Wilson called his program "the New Freedom." One of his campaign promises was to fight for better conditions for America's small business owners.

威爾遜把這個理念稱為"新自由"。他的一個競選承諾是:要為美國的小企業主們爭取到更好的經營環境。

Such proposals helped him win the Democratic nomination for president. Then he defeated President William Howard Taft and former president Theodore Roosevelt in the election. Woodrow Wilson, the former president of a university, had become the president of a nation.

這類政治主張使他獲得了民主黨總統候選人提名。在總統選舉中,威爾遜擊敗了當時的總統塔夫脫和以前當過總統的西奧多.羅斯福。就這樣,以前領導一所大學的威爾遜現在成了一個國家的領袖。

A crowd gathering for the Woodrow Wilson's inauguration parade in 1913
A crowd gathering for the Woodrow Wilson's inauguration parade in 1913

The largest crowd in Washington, D.C.'s history welcomed Wilson outside the Capitol Building on the day of his inauguration. He called on the American people to join him in making the country a better place. "Our duty," Wilson said, "is to correct the evil without hurting the good. I call all honest men, all patriotic, all forward-looking men to my side."

人們在華盛頓特區國會大樓外歡迎威爾遜,人數之多創下了歷史紀錄。威爾遜呼吁美國人與他一道,把國家建設得更好。他說:"我的職責就是在不傷害美好事物的同時,糾正邪惡。我呼吁所有正直、愛國、有前瞻性的人站在我這一邊。"

KAY GALANT: Wilson wasted no time. He immediately called a special session of Congress to act on Democratic campaign promises to reduce import taxes, or tariffs. Wilson felt strongly about the need to reform these taxes. He broke tradition by leaving the White House to appear before Congress, in person, to appeal for his tariff proposals.

威爾遜總統沒有浪費時間,一上任就馬上要求國會召開特別會議,就民主黨在競選時承諾的降低進口關稅問題采取行動。威爾遜強烈認為進口關稅應進行改革。他一改以前總統的做法,親自跑到國會,呼吁議員們支持自己的改革方案。

Many members of Congress opposed Wilson's plans. But the new president used the results of a Senate investigation to win the fight. The investigation showed that a number of senators owned companies that depended on high tariffs for their profits. The votes of these senators were influenced by their property holdings.

許多國會議員反對威爾遜的計劃,但威爾遜利用參議院一項調查的結果贏得了這次斗爭。這項調查顯示,許多參議員擁有自己的公司,而這些公司要靠高關稅才能謀利。這樣,這些參議員們的財產就影響到了他們的投票結果。

Public knowledge of the situation forced many of them to give up their holdings and stop resisting tariff reform. Congress finally approved Wilson's proposals.

在公眾了解到這一情況后,許多參議員不得不放棄了手中的公司,也不再抵制關稅改革。

HARRY MONROE: Lower tariffs reduced the amount of money taken in by the federal government. So the Senate also approved a tax on income, or earnings. A constitutional amendment had been passed earlier to permit such a tax.

最后,國會通過了威爾遜的建議。低關稅導致聯邦政府收入降低,所以參議院也批準了征收所得稅的法案。此前,國會已經通過憲法修正案,準許征收所得稅。

President Wilson and the Democratic Party were pleased with the new tariff and income tax bills. But they were far from finished. Next they turned their efforts to reform of the banking industry.

威爾遜總統和民主黨對新的關稅和所得稅法很滿意,但他們的目標還遠沒有實現。接下去,他們把精力轉移到銀行業的改革上。

For several years, many people had recognized the need for changes in the banking system. The old system of uncontrolled private banks had developed years earlier, before the United States became a major industrial nation. Many people agreed that a more modern system was needed. But they could not agree on details.

幾年來,許多美國人認識到,銀行體制需要改革。多年前,也就是美國在成為世界主要工業國之前,已經發展起了一套不受控制的私人銀行系統?,F在,許多人都認為,美國需要一個更加現代的銀行體系,但他們無法就改革的細節達成一致意見。

KAY GALANT: President Wilson said control of the nation's wealth was held by too few men. He noted a report that said just two men controlled ten percent of the total wealth of the United States.

威爾遜總統指出,國家的財富被控制在少數人手里。他列舉一份報告說,有兩個人掌握著美國百分之10的財富。

Wilson said the nation needed a money supply that could be increased or reduced, when necessary, to correct economic conditions. He said a method was needed to let banks help each other during economic emergencies. And he said laws were needed to prevent a few wealthy men from using the economic resources of the country for their own purposes.

他說,國家需要一個貨幣體系,在必要的時候增加或減少貨幣供應量;還需建立一套辦法,使各個銀行在遇到緊急經濟問題時能相互幫忙。威爾遜還指出,美國需要出臺法律,阻止少數有錢人利用國家的經濟資源來實現自己的個人目的。

Finally, Wilson said, "The control of this system of banking must be public, not private. It must belong to the government itself."

最后,他說,"銀行體系必須由公眾而不是私人所控制,控制權須交給政府。"

HARRY MONROE: Wilson called his proposal for a central bank the Federal Reserve System.

威爾遜將設想中的中央銀行體系稱為聯邦儲備系統。

Under the plan, the nation would be divided into twelve areas. Each area would have its own federal reserve bank. These area banks would not do business with the public. They would serve only as "bankers' banks." And they would issue a new form of money supported by the federal government. Most important, the leaders of the new system would be chosen by the government--not by private business.

根據他的計劃,美國將被分為十二個區,每個區都有自己的聯邦儲備銀行。這些銀行不對公眾開展業務,而是"銀行的銀行"。聯邦儲備銀行將發行一種由聯邦政府支持的新貨幣。最重要的是,這個新銀行系統的領導人是由政府指定的,不是由私人企業來決定的。

Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson

KAY GALANT: Bankers, business leaders, and their representatives in Congress sharply criticized President Wilson's proposals. They said government control of the banking system was socialism, not capitalism.

結果,銀行家、企業主和他們在國會中的代言人都強烈批評威爾遜的建議。他們說,政府控制銀行就是搞社會主義,不是資本主義。

But Wilson refused to change his proposals. And he helped to lead the fight to make them law. Finally, Congress agreed.

但是,威爾遜拒絕修改他的建議,而且他還協助了把這些建議變成法律的努力。最終,國會屈服了,接受了威爾遜的建議。

It did not take long for bankers to discover that the new system was much better than the old one. Today, the Federal Reserve System is one of the most important institutions in the United States.

而銀行家們沒用多長時間就發現,新的銀行體制其實要好于舊體制。今天,聯邦儲備系統是美國政府最重要的機構之一。

HARRY MONROE: For Woodrow Wilson, the fight over the banking system was yet another political success. He had won major reforms in the nation's tariffs, taxes, and banking systems. Now he told Congress that new legislation was needed to control the power of monopolies and trusts. These were the giant companies and business alliances that controlled complete industries.

對于威爾遜而言,銀行體制改革的斗爭是他政治生涯的又一次成功。至此,他已經實現了在關稅、所得稅和銀行體制上的重要改革?,F在,他對國會說,需要出臺新的立法,以控制壟斷企業或大托拉斯的權力。壟斷企業和托拉斯指的是控制整個行業的巨型企業和企業聯盟。

Wilson proposed a new anti-trust law to control the actions of large companies. His supporters in Congress wrote a bill that listed a number of business activities that no longer would be permitted.

威爾遜建議出臺一部新的反托拉斯法,以控制大壟斷企業的行為。他在國會的支持者起草了一個議案,列出許多將不再被允許的商業活動。

For example, no longer could a company set prices that would reduce competition or create a monopoly. No longer could corporations buy stocks of competing companies. No longer could they demand that a store refuse to sell competing products. The new bill also protected labor unions from being charged with anti-trust violations. It gave unions more power to organize and protect workers.

例如:企業將不準為了減少競爭或實現壟斷而設定產品價格;不能購買競爭企業的股票;不能要求零售商拒賣自己競爭對手的商品。新法案還保護工會不受違反反托拉斯法的指控,并給予工會更大的權力,讓它們組織和保護工人。

KAY GALANT: At President Wilson's request, Congress also prepared a law that set up a government agency called the Federal Trade Commission. The commission was given the job of investigating wrong-doing in business. It had the power to force companies to obey the new anti-trust laws and other rules.

根據威爾遜總統的要求,國會還起草了另外一個議案,準備設立一個名叫"聯邦貿易委員會"的政府機構。這個委員會的職責是調查非法商業行為,并有權強制企業遵守新的反托拉斯法和其它法律。

Both the anti-trust law and the Federal Trade Commission helped protect small business owners from the power of business giants. Once again, the proposals caused fierce debate. But, once again, Congress finally voted to give Wilson most of what he wanted.

反托拉斯法和聯邦貿易委員會幫助保護小企業主免受大企業的壓制。威爾遜的這一建議再次引起了激烈的辨論,但是,國會再次投票通過了威爾遜的大部分主張。

HARRY MONROE: The early months of Wilson's term were one of the most successful times in the history of any president. The new president had won the election by promising major reforms in the economic life of the country. And he had kept that promise.

威爾遜總統上任后頭幾個月所取得的成功是美國歷任總統中最顯著的。威爾遜在競選時曾承諾,要對國家的經濟生活進行重大改革,他兌現了承諾。

The reforms were not only a victory for Woodrow Wilson. They also changed the face of American business and economics for many years to come. The income tax, for example, grew to become the federal government's main source of money.

這些改革不僅是威爾遜本人的勝利,而且在今后很長時間里改變了美國經濟和企業的面貌。例如,所得稅后來逐漸成了美國聯邦政府的主要財政來源。

KAY GALANT: Woodrow Wilson had taught history in the days when he was a professor at Princeton University. He knew his actions as president could influence the country for a long time. But, as a historian, he also knew his own term in the White House could be changed by unexpected events. That is just what happened.

威爾遜在普林斯頓大學當教授時教過歷史。他知道,作為總統,自己的行為對國家將產生長遠的影響。但是,作為一名歷史學家,他也深知,自己的總統任期將會受到許多不可預知事件的影響。而事實也正是如此。

Wilson campaigned for president mainly on national issues. But he soon was forced to spend more and more time on international issues. His first big problem was across the United States' southern border, in Mexico. That will be our story next week.

威爾遜在競選期間關注的主要是國內問題,但不久之后,他就不得不花越來越多的時間來解決國際問題。他面對的第一個重大問題發生在美國南部的鄰國墨西哥。

(MUSIC)

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe.

You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.666321.live. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

網友的學習評論(1條):
作者:perfect100
woodrow wilson made a series of reforms in ecnomic area,including tariffs ,taxes ,making anti-trust laws....
版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
網站備案:蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
廣播臺
中国北京福彩中心地址 五分彩万位五码计划投注必胜法 德甲联赛最佳射手 至尊联盟棋牌客服怎么找 黑龙江褔彩36选7历史开奖 竞技捕鱼红包版 浙江体彩11选5开奖 上海11选5任走势图 22选5玩法中奖结果 意甲历届最佳射手榜前三 广西体彩11选5号码统计