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#159: General Pershing Leads Troops into Europe's Great War

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Russian troops in 1917
Russian troops in 1917

BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

This week in our series, Larry West and Tony Riggs continue the story of President Woodrow Wilson.

LARRY WEST: In nineteen seventeen, Europe was at war. It was the conflict known as World War One. After three years of fighting, Europe's lands were filled with the sights and sounds of death. But still, the armies of the Allies and the Central Powers continued to fight.

1917年,歐洲正在打第一次世界大戰。戰火燒了三年之后,歐洲尸橫遍野,哀嚎不斷。但是,協約國和軸心國的軍隊仍然在交戰。

The United States had tried to keep out of the European conflict. It declared its neutrality. In the end, however, neutrality was impossible.

美國一直試圖遠離歐洲的戰爭,并宣布保持中立。然而最終,形勢的發展讓中立成為不可能。

Germany was facing starvation because of a British naval blockade. To break the blockade, German submarines attacked any ship that sailed to Europe. That included ships from neutral nations like the United States. The German submarines sank several American ships. Many innocent people were killed.

由于英國在海上的封鎖,德國面臨嚴重的饑餓。為了打破封鎖,德國潛艇向所有駛向歐洲的船只發動攻擊,包括美國等中立國家的船只。德國潛艇擊沉了幾艘美國船,導致許多無辜的人喪生。

TONY RIGGS: German submarine attacks finally forced the United States into the war. It joined the Allies: Britain, France, and Russia.

德國潛艇的攻擊迫使美國參戰,加入到由英國、法國和俄羅斯組成的協約國陣營。

Like most Americans, President Wilson did not want war. But he had no choice. Sadly, he asked Congress for a declaration of war. Congress approved the declaration on April sixth, nineteen seventeen.

和許多美國人一樣,威爾遜總統并不想打仗,但他別無選擇。他悲傷地請求國會宣戰。1917年4月6日,美國國會批準對德宣戰。

It was not long before American soldiers reached the European continent. They marched in a parade through the streets of Paris. The people of France gave them a wild welcome. They cheered the young Americans. They threw flowers at the soldiers and kissed them.

不久,美軍就來到了歐洲大陸,他們浩浩蕩蕩地行走在巴黎的大街上。法國人民狂熱地歡迎他們,向他們拋出鮮花,親吻他們。

General John J. Pershing
General John J. Pershing

LARRY WEST: The Americans marched to the burial place of the Marquis de Lafayette. Lafayette was the French military leader who had come to America's aid during its war of independence from Britain. The United States wanted to repay France for its help more than a hundred years earlier.

美軍來到了拉法耶特侯爵的墓地。拉法耶特侯爵生前是法國軍隊的領導人,在美國獨立戰爭期間,他曾幫助美國人。美國人想報答法國100多年前對他們的幫助。

An American Army officer made a speech at the tomb. He said: "Lafayette, we are here!"

一名美國軍官在拉法耶特的墓前發表講話,他說:"拉法耶特,我們來了!"

TONY RIGGS: And so the Americans were there. They were ready to fight in the bloodiest war the world had ever known. Week by week, more American troops arrived. By October, nineteen seventeen, the American army in Europe totaled one hundred thousand men. The leader of that army was General John J. Pershing.

是的,美國人來了,他們已經準備好參加世界歷史上最血腥的這場戰爭。一個星期又一個星期,越來越多的美國軍人來到歐洲。到1917年10月,在歐洲的美軍總數已經達到了10萬。他們的將領是約翰.潘興將軍。

Pershing's forces were not sent directly into battle. Instead, they spent time training, building bases, and preparing supplies. Then a small group was sent to the border between Switzerland and Germany. The Americans fought a short but bitter battle there against German forces.

潘興的軍隊沒有直接參戰,而是訓練、修建基地和準備補給。后來,一支小分隊被派往瑞士和德國邊界,在那里同德軍進行了短促但激烈的交戰。

The Germans knew the American soldiers had not fought before. They tried to frighten the Americans by waving their knives and guns in a fierce attack. The Americans surprised the Germans. They stood and fought back successfully.

德軍知道,美軍以前沒有打過仗,所以他們發起猛攻,揮舞刀槍,試圖嚇退美軍。然而,美軍的表現令德國吃驚,他們守住了陣地并成功反擊。

"Here Are the Americans!" says a French poster from World War One, showing a large shadow of an American soldier over a German soldier

LARRY WEST: Full American participation in the fighting did not come for several months. It came only after another event took place. That event changed the war and the history of the Twentieth Century. It was the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. Its leader was Vladimir Lenin.

幾個月后,美軍才完全投入了戰斗。在那之前發生了一件大事,它改變了第一次世界大戰的進程,也改變了20世紀的歷史,這就是列寧在俄國領導的布爾什維克革命。

The Russian Revolution began in the spring of nineteen seventeen. The people of that country were tired of fighting Germany. And they were tired of their ruler, Czar Nicholas. The Czar was overthrown. A temporary government was established. It was headed by Alexander Kerenski.

這場革命開始于1917年春天,當時,俄國人已經厭倦了同德國的交戰,也厭倦了沙皇尼古拉二世的統治。沙皇被推翻后,一個臨時政府成立了,它的領導人是亞歷山大·克倫斯基。

President Woodrow Wilson sent a team of American officials to Russia to help Kerenski's new government. The officials urged Russia to remain in the war.

威爾遜總統向俄羅斯派遣了一支官方小組,幫助克倫斯基組建新政府,并敦促俄羅斯繼續參戰。

TONY RIGGS: Under Kerenski, Russia did keep fighting. But it continued to suffer terrible losses. Many Russians demanded an end to the war.

在克倫斯基的領導下,俄國繼續作戰,但也繼續遭受慘重傷亡,許多俄國人要求結束戰爭。

Lenin saw this opposition as a way to gain control of the government. So he went to the city of Petrograd. There, he led the opposition to the war and to Kerenski. Night after night, he spoke to big crowds. "What do you get from war." He shouted. "Only wounds, hunger and death!"

列寧把這股反戰情緒看成是奪取政權的途徑。他前往彼得格勒,在那里領導反戰和反對克倫斯基的運動。每天晚上,他都對人群大聲疾呼:"你們能從戰爭中得到什么呢?只有傷病、饑餓和死亡!"

Lenin promised peace under Bolshevik Communism. Within a few months, he won control of the Petrograd Soviet. That was an organization of workers and soldiers. Another Bolshevik Communist, Leon Trotsky, controlled the Soviet in Moscow.

列寧承諾,在布爾什維克的領導下,俄國人能過上太平日子。在幾個月內,他就控制了由工人和軍人組成的彼得格勒蘇維埃政權。

LARRY WEST: Kerenski's government continued to do badly in the war. More and more Russian soldiers lost hope. Many fled the army. Others stayed. But they refused to fight.

與此同時,克倫斯基政府繼續在戰爭中節節敗退,越來越多的俄國士兵不再抱有希望,許多人開了小差。其他人雖然沒走,但卻拒絕參加戰斗。

The end came in November, nineteen seventeen. Soldiers in Petrograd turned against Kerenski. Lenin ordered them to rebel. And he took control of the government within forty-eight hours. Russia was now a Communist nation.

最終,在1917年11月,彼得格勒的士兵開始反倫克林斯基。列寧命令他們起義,并在48小時內就控制了俄國政府?,F在,俄羅斯是一個共產黨國家了。

As promised, Lenin called for peace. So Russia signed its own peace treaty with Germany. The treaty forced Russia to pay a high price for its part in the war. It had to give up a third of its farmland, half of its industry, and ninety percent of its coal mines. It also lost a third of its population. Still, it did not have real peace with Germany.

列寧遵守承諾,呼吁實現和平。俄羅斯單獨與德國簽署了和平條約。和平條約迫使俄羅斯為其參加第一次世界大戰付出沉重的代價。俄羅斯不得不放棄自己三分之一的農田、一半的工業和百分之90的煤礦,而且還失去了三分之一的人口。盡管如此,俄羅斯也未能真正地與德國實現和平。

TONY RIGGS: The treaty between Russia and Germany had a powerful influence on the military situation in the rest of Europe. Now, Germany no longer had to fight an enemy on two fronts. Its eastern border was quiet suddenly. It could aim all its forces against Britain, France, and the other Allies on its western border.

然而,兩國間的和平條約給歐洲戰場其它地方的軍事形勢帶來了重大影響。德國不再需要同時在兩條戰線作戰。東部戰線突然平靜了,它可以調集所有軍隊到西線去,對付英國、法國和其它協約國成員。

Germany had suffered terrible losses during four years of war. Many of its soldiers had been killed. And many of its civilians had come close to starving, because of the British naval blockade. Yet Germany's leaders still hoped to win. They decided to launch a major attack. They knew they had to act quickly, before the United States could send more troops to help the Allies.

在四年的戰爭中,德國遭受了重大損失,許多士兵陣亡,很多平民由于英國的海上封鎖而幾乎餓死。然而,德國領導人仍然希望贏得戰爭。為此,他們決定發動一次大規模進攻。他們知道,這次行動必須迅速,要趕在美國向歐洲派更多軍隊幫助協約國作戰之前就發動進攻。

LARRY WEST: German military leaders decided to break through the long battle line that divided most of central Europe. They planned to strike first at the north end of the line. British troops held that area. The Germans would push the British off the continent and back across the English Channel. Then they would turn all their strength on France. When France was defeated, Germany would be victorious.

德國軍隊領導人決定突破貫穿大部分中歐地區的戰線。他們打算先攻打這條戰線的北端,那里由英軍防守。德軍打算把英軍趕出歐洲大陸,逼他們渡過英吉利海峽回老家。然后,德國將集中全力對付法國,把法國擊敗后,德國就將取得勝利了。

The campaign opened in March, nineteen eighteen. German forces attacked British soldiers near Amiens, France. The Germans had six thousand pieces of artillery. The British troops fought hard, but could not stop the Germans. They were pushed back fifty kilometers. The attack stopped for about a week.

這場戰役于1918年3月打響,德軍在法國的亞眠附近向英軍發動進攻。德軍發射了六千枚炮彈,英軍奮勇抵抗,但沒能阻止住德軍的進攻,被迫后退了50公里。

TONY RIGGS: Then the Germans struck again. This time, their target was Ypres, Belgium.

一個星期后,德國再次發動進攻,這次的目標是比利時的伊普雷斯。

The second attack was so successful it seemed the Germans might push the British all the way back to the sea. The British commander, Field Marshal Douglas Haig, ordered his men not to withdraw. Haig said: "There is no other course open to us, but to fight it out."

這次進攻大獲全勝,眼看德軍就要把英軍趕到大海里了。這時,英軍指揮官、陸軍元帥道格拉斯.黑格命令英軍絕不能后撤。他說:"我們已經無路可走,只能殺出一條血路。"

The British fought hard and stopped the attack. Losses on both sides were extremely high. Yet the Germans continued with their plan.

英軍勇猛作戰,阻止了德軍的進攻。雙方傷亡慘重,但德軍并沒有改變作戰計劃。

LARRY WEST: Their next attack was northeast of Paris in May. This time, they broke the Allied line easily and rushed toward Paris. The German Army chief, General Erich Ludendorff, tried to capture the French capital without waiting to strengthen his forces. He got close enough to shell the city.

德軍的下一次進攻是在5月,目標是巴黎的東北方。這次,德軍輕松突破了協約國的防線,并向巴黎推進。德軍最高指揮官埃里克.魯登道夫將軍甚至等不及讓軍隊休整一下,就迫不及待地要拿下巴黎。他的部隊推進到了可以炮轟巴黎的位置。

The French government prepared to flee.

法國政府已經做好了逃跑的準備。

Allied military leaders rushed more troops to the area. The new force included two big groups of American marines.

協約國的軍事將領們則向這個地區派遣了更多的增援部隊,其中包括美國海軍陸戰隊的兩支大部隊。

Damage caused by shells that struck Belleau Woods, France
Damage caused by shells that struck Belleau Woods, France

TONY RIGGS: The heaviest fighting was outside Paris at a place called Belleau Wood. The American Marines were advised to prepare for a possible withdrawal. One Marine said: "Withdraw? We just got here!"

最激烈的戰斗發生在巴黎郊外一個叫貝勒伍德的地方。有人建議美國海軍陸戰隊做好撤退準備,但一名美軍戰士說:"撤退?我們才剛來到這里!"

The Marines resisted as the Germans attacked Allied lines in Belleau Wood again and again. Then they attacked the German lines. The Battle for Belleau Wood lasted three weeks. It was the most serious German offensive of the war. The Germans lost.

在貝勒伍德,當德軍一次又一次進攻協約國防線時,美軍發起反攻,然后又向德軍發起進攻。貝勒伍德戰役持續了三周。這是德軍在一戰中發起的最猛烈攻勢,但最終以失敗收場。

We will continue our story of World War One next week.

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Larry West and Tony Riggs.

You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.666321.live. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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