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#160: President Wilson Helps Negotiate an End to World War

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A poster for selling liberty bonds shows Uncle Sam with a truck full of citizens holding bonds under a sign saying
A poster for selling liberty bonds shows Uncle Sam with a truck full of citizens holding bonds under a sign saying "To Berlin"

BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

This week in our series, Larry West and Maurice Joyce continue the story of President Woodrow Wilson and American involvement in World War One.

LARRY WEST: Nineteen eighteen was the final year of the most terrible war the world had ever known. But World War One did not end quickly or easily. The German Army made a final effort to defeat the Allies. The United States had entered the conflict. And Germany wanted a victory before large numbers of American troops could get to Europe.

第一次世界大戰的血腥程度超過了之前所有的戰爭。1918年是一戰的最后一年。然而,戰爭并沒有迅速而輕易地結束。德國軍隊為打敗協約國做出了最后的努力。美國已經參戰,德國希望能夠在大批美軍進入歐洲之前取得勝利。

Germany's effort became easier after it signed a peace treaty with the new Bolshevik government in Russia. The treaty made it possible for Germany to use all its forces against the Allies on its western border. In the end, however, Germany's plan failed.

德國的這一努力在它和俄國的布爾什維克新政府簽署和平條約之后變得輕松了一些。因為這個條約使德國能夠把所有兵力投入西線同協約國作戰。然而,德國的計劃最后還是失敗了。

Allied troops pushed back the German attack in a series of bloody battles. The addition of American soldiers greatly increased Allied strength.

協約國軍隊經過一系列血戰,擊退了德軍的進攻。美軍的協助極大地增強了協約國的力量 。

MAURICE JOYCE: The leader of American forces in Europe was General John?J. Pershing. General Pershing used a weapon new to the world of war: air power.

美軍在歐洲的指揮官是約翰·潘興將軍。他在這次世界大戰中使用了一種新武器:飛機。

Airplanes were used first simply as 'eyes in the sky'. They discovered enemy positions so ground artillery could fire at them. Then they were used as fighter planes. They carried guns to shoot down other planes. Finally, planes were built big enough to carry bombs.

飛機最開始只是作為“空中的眼睛”,執行偵察任務。飛機確定敵人的地面位置,然后大炮對敵人進行轟炸。后來,飛機變成了戰斗機,上面配備了槍炮,可以打到別的飛機。最后,飛機變得足夠大,可以攜帶炸彈。

General Pershing also used another new weapon of war: tanks. He put these inventions together for his battle plan against Germany.

潘興將軍還在戰場上使用了另一種新的武器:坦克。他把這些新武器統統用在了同德國的一場較量中。

German soldiers standing around a German tank as other soldiers make repairs
German soldiers standing around a German tank as other soldiers make repairs

LARRY WEST: ?Pershing's target was the Argonne Forest. It was a tree-covered area Germany had held since nineteen fourteen.

這次戰役的目標是阿貢森林。阿貢森林自1914年就被德軍占領。

The forest was protected by barbed wire and by defensive positions built of steel and concrete. It was the strongest part of the German line. It also was the most important part. If Argonne fell, Germany's final lines of defense would fall.

森林四周都是鐵絲網和鋼筋水泥的碉堡,是德軍防線最堅固、最重要的地方。如果阿貢森林防線被攻破,那德軍的最后防線也就崩潰了。

The fighting in the Argonne Forest was fierce. Thousands of men died. Sometimes, troops got lost because the forest was so thick with trees. But day by day, the Allies pushed the Germans back.

阿貢森林戰役打得非常激烈,數以千計的軍人陣亡。由于森林里樹木太茂密,軍隊有時會迷路。但隨著時間一天天過去,協約國步步進逼,德軍連連敗退。

MAURICE JOYCE: ?Germany's leaders were losing hope. In September, nineteen eighteen, they met with German ruler Kaiser Wilhelm. The army chief reported that the war was lost. Germany had no choice, he said. It must give back all the territory it had seized and try to negotiate a peace agreement.

德軍將領對戰爭失去了希望。1918年9月,德國皇帝威廉二世召見他們時,陸軍總司令報告說,德國將輸掉這場戰爭。他說,德國已經別無選擇,只能把占領的領土退還,并想辦法談判一個和平協議。

Other officials told the Kaiser that the situation at home was bad, too. People were starving. Revolutionaries were plotting to overthrow the government.

其他官員告訴威廉皇帝說,德國國內的形勢也不樂觀。人們正遭受饑餓,革命黨陰謀推翻政府。

Kaiser Wilhelm agreed it might be best to seek peace now. . . Before Germany was destroyed completely. He asked his foreign secretary to send a secret message to American President Woodrow Wilson. The message would propose immediate negotiations to end the war.

威廉皇帝同意,在德國被完全毀滅前,現在就謀求和平或許是最好的出路。威廉皇帝讓外相給美國總統威爾遜發去一封密函,建議立即舉行結束戰爭的和平談判。

From left, General Paul von Hindenburg, Kaiser Wilhelm II and General Erich Ludendorff examine maps
From left, General Paul von Hindenburg, Kaiser Wilhelm II and General Erich Ludendorff examine maps

LARRY WEST: President Wilson received it. He did not tell the other Allied leaders. Instead, he returned a message to Germany. Wilson asked if Germany was willing to accept the peace proposals he had offered many months earlier.

威爾遜收到了密函。他沒有將此事告訴其他協約國領導人,而是直接給德國回信。他問德國能否接受他幾個月前提出的和平提議。

Germany's Chancellor answered that his government did accept the proposals. However, the events of war ended the secret exchange of messages between Germany and the United States. German submarines had increased attacks on Allied shipping. Two passenger ships were sunk. Eight hundred twenty persons were killed. Many were women and children.

德國首相回答說,德國接受美國的提議。然而,歐洲戰場上發生的一系列事件使德國和美國之間的這一秘密談判沒有繼續下去:德國潛艇加緊了對協約國船只的進攻,有兩艘客船被擊沉,820名乘客遇難,其中許多是婦女和兒童。

President Wilson was shocked. He told Germany there could be no peace negotiations with such an inhuman enemy.

威爾遜總統震驚了,他對德國人說,他決不同德國這樣沒人性的敵人進行和平談判。

MAURICE JOYCE: ?In late October, nineteen eighteen, Wilson sent a final message to Germany. He wanted a settlement that would make it impossible for Germany to fight again. Germany, Wilson said, must promise to withdraw its forces from all Allied territory. It also must close its weapons factories.

1918年10月底,威爾遜給德國發去最后一封信。他提出一項解決方案,將讓德國失去作戰能力。他說,德國必須承諾把軍隊從所有協約國領土撤出,而且必須關閉兵工廠。

Wilson added that the Allies would negotiate only with a government that truly represented the people of Germany. . . not with military rulers.

威爾遜還說,協約國只愿意同真正代表德國人民的政府談判,不會與軍方統治者談判。

The new German Chancellor was Maximilian, Prince of Baden. Prince Max received President Wilson's message. He succeeded in getting Kaiser Wilhelm to dismiss the man responsible for German military policy. But he failed to get the Kaiser himself to give up power.

新任德國首相是巴登親王馬西米蘭。他收到了威爾遜的信,并成功地說服威廉皇帝將負責德國軍事政策的人革職。但是,馬西米蘭沒能讓威廉皇帝本人放棄權力。

President Woodrow Wilson
President Woodrow Wilson

LARRY WEST: Not all allied leaders supported President Wilson's plan to end World War One. They could not agree on some parts of it.

并非所有的協約國領導人都支持威爾遜結束戰爭的計劃,他們對計劃中一些內容持不同意見。

Britain, for example, opposed the part about freedom of the seas. Britain said it would prevent the kind of naval blockade which had been so effective against Germany. France and Italy opposed the part about creating a new international organization. Wilson had called it a league of nations.

例如,英國反對海上自由航行的部分,認為這會使一直以來對德國的有效海上封鎖無法實施。法國和意大利則反對計劃中關于創立一個新的國際組織的內容。威爾遜稱這個國際組織為國聯。

To solve these differences, Wilson sent his closest adviser to Europe to meet with Allied leaders. The discussions were long and sometimes bitter. Many of the Allies thought Wilson was being too kind to the defeated enemy. But in the end, they all agreed to accept the plan as a starting point for peace talks.

為了解決協約國之間的分歧,威爾遜派自己最信任的顧問前往歐洲,與協約國各國領導人會談。這些談判花了很長的時間,有時還談得很不愉快。許多協約國領導人認為,威爾遜對戰敗國太過友善。但最終,他們都同意接受威爾遜提出的計劃,作為和平談判的起點。

MAURICE JOYCE: ?By this time, in early November, the situation in Germany was growing worse. Communists and Socialists were calling for a rebellion. The navy was ordered to go to sea. Sailors refused, and killed some officers. Reports told of rebellion in parts of the German army, too.

此時,即1918年11月初,德國的局勢不斷惡化。共產主義者和社會主義者提出造反。德國將領下令海軍出海,但士兵們拒絕執行任務,并殺死了一些軍官。有報導說,在德國陸軍中也有人造反。

The nation's leaders had no choice. They would negotiate a peace treaty. On the morning of November eighth, a German delegation went to Allied military headquarters to discuss terms.

德軍領導人再也沒有別的選擇,只能同協約國舉行和平談判。1918年11月8日早晨,一個德國代表團前往協約國軍事總部商討和平條款。

LARRY WEST: The Germans were met by the Supreme Allied Commander, Marshal Ferdinand Foch of France. Foch greeted them coldly. And he did not offer peace terms until they officially asked for a ceasefire. Germany -- not the Allies -- had to put down its weapons first.

接待他們的是協約國軍隊最高指揮官、法國元帥斐迪南·福煦。他對德國代表團態度冷淡,而且直到德國代表團正式請求?;?,他才拿出和平條款。在他看來,德國,而不是協約國,必須首先放下武器。

The Germans were shocked when they heard the terms. The list was severe.

和平條款的內容讓德國代表團感到震驚,協約國提出的條件非常嚴苛。

Among other things, Germany must withdraw its forces from all occupied territories. It must give up Alsace-Lorraine, a part of France it had held for almost fifty years. It must give up most of its weapons including airplanes, submarines, and battleships. And it must turn over large numbers of trucks, railroad engines, and other supplies.

比如,德國必須從所有占領區撤離,必須放棄德國從法國奪取并已經控制了50年的阿爾薩斯-洛林地區,必須放棄包括飛機、潛艇和軍艦在內的大部分武器,還必須交出大量的卡車、火車機車和其它設備。

MAURICE JOYCE: The German delegation said it could not sign such an agreement. Germany, it said, was not surrendering. It was only asking for a ceasefire. The delegation said it could not accept the peace terms without communicating with the government in Berlin.

德國代表團說,他們不會簽署這樣的條約。他們說,德國不是投降,只是要求?;?;代表團不能在沒與柏林政府溝通的情況下就簽署條約。

But the German government was falling apart. Kaiser Wilhelm had finally resigned and left the country. A new cabinet had been formed. And a new prime minister had declared a German republic. Yet the situation remained unsettled.

然而,德國政府正在分崩離析。威廉二世最終退位并離開了德國,一個新內閣成立了,新總理宣布德國為共和國,然而德國的局勢并沒有穩定下來。

Because of this, the German delegation negotiating with the Allies had to decide for itself. After much argument, the men agreed to the Allied terms. They signed the peace treaty. A ceasefire began a few hours later.

正因為如此,與協約國談判的德國代表團不得不自己拿主意。經過漫長的會談,代表團最終還是同意了協約國的條件,簽署了和平條約。幾個小時之后,?;鹕Я?。

LARRY WEST: News that the shooting had stopped set off wild celebrations throughout the world. People danced in the streets. They cheered the end of the worst war in history.

?;鸬南⒁l了世界各地人民的歡慶。人們到大街上跳舞,慶祝這場有史以來最可怕的戰爭終于結束。

There were celebrations along the battle lines, too. But these were quiet. Soldiers from both sides climbed out of long trenches dug in the ground. They met the men who, a short while earlier, had been their deadly enemy.

同樣,戰場上的士兵們也在慶祝?;?,但卻是以一種安靜的方式。雙方的軍人都從長長的戰壕中爬出來,與剛剛還在你死我活拼殺的敵人會面。

The bloody European conflict was over. The dispute, however, was not. Another fierce battle was ready to begin. This time, the battle would be among diplomats. The fight over the peace treaty officially ending World War One was about to begin.

這場血腥的歐洲大戰終于結束了。然而,矛盾并未解決,另一場激烈的戰斗即將開始。這次上場的是各國的外交官們,他們將圍繞正式結束第一次世界大戰的和平條約展開較量。

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Larry West and Maurice Joyce.

You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.666321.live. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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作者:鄭烈波
the dispute,however,was not.another fierce battle was ready to begin.this time,the battle would be among diplomats.the fight over the peace treaty officilly ending world war one was about to begin.
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