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#162: Remembering the Peace Talks That Followed the Original Armistice Day

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Allies around the conference table in Paris in 1919
Allies around the conference table in Paris in 1919

BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

In nineteen eighteen, on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month, a truce took effect between the Allies and Germany. But not until seven months later was a treaty signed to officially end what was known as the Great War and the War to End All Wars.

1918年11月11日上午11點,協約國和德國停止交火。但是,雙方直到7個月之后才簽署協定,正式結束第一次世界大戰。

This week in our series, Shirley Griffith and Larry West continue the story of the peace conference following World War One.

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: American President Woodrow Wilson was one of the chief negotiators at the conference in Paris. Throughout the early months of nineteen nineteen, he struggled hard for a treaty that would result in peace with justice for all sides.

時任美國總統威爾遜是巴黎和會上的主要談判者之一。1919年的頭幾個月,威爾遜一直在努力促成和談,希望能實現對各方都公正的和平。

Wilson demanded a treaty that provided for a new international organization. He called it the League of Nations. To Wilson, the league was more important than any other part of the treaty.

威爾遜要求在和平條約中加入建立一個新國際組織的內容,他把這個組織稱為國聯。威爾遜認為,國聯是整個和約中最重要的內容。

Not all Americans shared Wilson's opinion. Many feared the league would take away the power of the American government to declare war and make treaties. They also agreed with the leaders of the other allied nations. Establishing the league was less important than punishing the defeated enemy.

然而,并不是所有美國人都同意威爾遜的觀點。許多人擔心,國聯會搶走美國政府宣戰和締結條約的權力。他們和協約國其它成員國的領導人一樣,認為巴黎和會的首要任務是懲罰戰敗的敵國,而不是建立國聯。

Left to right: Britain's Prime Minister David Lloyd George, Italy's Premier Vittorio Orlando, France's Premier Georges Clemenceau, and President Woodrow Wilson on June 28, 1919.
Left to right: Britain's Prime Minister David Lloyd George, Italy's Premier Vittorio Orlando, France's Premier Georges Clemenceau, and President Woodrow Wilson on June 28, 1919.

LARRY WEST: The other major allied leaders at the peace conference were Prime Minister David Lloyd-George of Britain, Premier Georges Clemenceau of France, and Premier Vittorio Otto of Italy.

除了威爾遜總統外,巴黎和會上的重量級協約國領導人還有英國首相戴維.勞埃德.喬治、法國總理喬治.克里孟梭和意大利總理維托里奧.奧蘭多。

Lloyd-George, Clemenceau, and Otto understood how much Wilson wanted the League of Nations. They used this knowledge to win Wilson's approval for other parts of the peace treaty.

他們都明白威爾遜建立國聯的迫切愿望,并利用這一點來贏得威爾遜對和約其它內容的認可。

Wilson soon learned that, to get the league, he had to compromise on many issues. For example, he had to accept British and French demands to make Germany pay all war damages. The payments added up to more than three hundred thousand million dollars. Wilson also had to accept the allied takeover of Germany's colonies.

威爾遜很快意識到,為了建立國聯,他必須在很多議題上妥協。比如,他不得不接受英國和法國提出的讓德國支付全部戰爭賠款的要求。這筆賠款總額超過3千億美元。此外,威爾遜還不得不同意讓協約國接手德國的殖民地。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Some of Wilson's compromises violated his belief in self-determination. This was the right of all people to decide for themselves who would govern them.

威爾遜的一些妥協違背了他信奉的"自決"理念。所謂"自決"指的是所有人都有權決定由誰來當他們的管理者。

One compromise, for example, gave to Japan Germany's colonial rights in the Shantung area of China. China protested the decision. It asked that control of Shantung be returned to the Chinese government. But President Wilson needed Japan's support for the League of Nations. So he accepted Japan's demand for control of Shantung.

比如,威爾遜做出妥協,同意把德國在中國山東的殖民權交給日本。中國政府對此提出抗議,要求收回對山東的控制權。但是,威爾遜在國聯問題上需要日本的支持,所以接受了日本的要求,把山東給了日本。

There were other violations of the policy of self-determination. These affected the people and land along the borders of several European nations.

其它做法也違背了自決原則,而且影響到了幾個歐洲國家邊界地區的人民和領土。

For example, three million Germans were made citizens of the new nation of Czechoslovakia. Millions of other Germans were forced into the newly formed nation of Poland. And Italy received territory that had belonged to Austria.

比如,有300萬德國人變成了新成立的捷克斯洛伐克的公民,另有數百萬德國人被迫加入了新成立的波蘭。而意大利接過了原來屬于奧地利的一部分領土。

LARRY WEST: Today, most history experts agree Woodrow Wilson was correct in opposing these decisions. They say Germany's loss of territory and citizens caused deep bitterness. And the bitterness helped lead to the rise of fascist dictator Adolph Hitler in the nineteen thirties.

今天的大部分歷史學家都認為,威爾遜總統反對以上幾項決定是正確的。他們說,這些決定使德國失去領土和國民,給德國人造成痛苦和不滿,而這種情緒從一定程度上導致了1930年代法西斯獨裁者希特勒的崛起。

In East Asia, Japanese control over parts of China created serious tensions. Both decisions helped plant the seeds for the bloody harvest of World War Two twenty years later. But allied leaders at the Paris peace conference were not looking far into the future. As one person said at the time: "They divided Europe like people cutting up a tasty pie."

在東亞,日本對中國領土的占領也引發了嚴重的緊張關系。這兩個決定都給20年后血腥的第二次世界大戰埋下了種子。不過,當年巴黎和會上的協約國領導人并沒有著眼于未來。當時有人評價說:"協約國領導人像切一塊美味蛋糕一樣瓜分了歐洲。"

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: After months of negotiations, the peace treaty was completed. The Allies gave it to a German delegation on May seventh, nineteen-nineteen. The head of the delegation objected immediately. He said the treaty was unfair. He urged his government not to sign it.

在巴黎和會上,各國經過幾個月的談判,終于敲定了一項和平條約。協約國1919年5月7號把條約交給了德國代表團。德國代表團團長立刻表示拒絕接受和約,認為這個和約是不公平的。他敦促德國政府不要在上面簽字。

At first, Germany did not sign. The leader of the government refused and resigned in protest. But a new government was formed. And its leader signed the document at a ceremony at the palace in Versailles outside Paris.

開始時,德國沒有簽字,德國總理拒絕接受和約,并以辭職表示抗議。但是新政府成立了。新總理在巴黎郊外凡爾賽宮舉行的簽約儀式上簽署了這份和平條約。

Finally, World War One was officially over.

終于,第一次世界大戰正式宣告結束。

LARRY WEST: President Woodrow Wilson returned to the United States after the treaty signing ceremony. He was not completely satisfied with the treaty. Yet he believed it was still valuable, because it established the League of Nations.

美國總統威爾遜在簽約儀式結束后返回了美國。他對和平條約并不完全滿意,但他認為,條約還是有價值的,因為它宣告了國聯的建立。

Wilson's battle for the league was only half over when the treaty was signed in Europe. He had to win approval from the United States Senate. That half of the battle would not be easy.

其實,凡爾賽和約的簽訂只標志著威爾遜建立國聯的努力成功了一半,剩下的一半是要讓美國國會參議院批準這份和約,而這可不容易做到。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Part of the problem was political. Wilson was a member of the Democratic Party. The Senate was controlled by the Republican Party. Also, Wilson had refused to name any important Republicans to his negotiating team at the peace conference.

其中一部分阻力來自于政治斗爭。威爾遜是民主黨人,但當時的參議院被共和黨控制。另外,威爾遜還曾拒絕挑選任何重要的共和黨成員加入他在巴黎和會的談判代表團。

Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge

Part of the problem was personal. A number of senators disliked Wilson. One was Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge. Lodge was the powerful chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He told a friend he never expected to hate anyone as much as he hated Wilson.

另外一部分阻力是個人原因。許多參議員不喜歡威爾遜。參議院外交關系委員會主席、位高權重的共和黨人亨利.洛奇就是其中之一。他對一個朋友說,全天下的人他最恨的就是威爾遜。

LARRY WEST: Wilson spoke before the Senate just two days after he returned from Europe. He urged it to approve the peace treaty.

威爾遜從歐洲回來剛兩天就到參議院去發表演講,敦促議員們批準凡爾賽和約。

Wilson said: "The united power of free nations must put a stop to aggression. And the world must be given peace. Shall we and any other free people refuse to accept this great duty? Dare we reject it and break the heart of the world? We cannot turn back. America shall show the way. The light streams upon the path ahead and nowhere else."

他說:"自由國家應合力阻止侵略行為。世界必須獲得和平。美國和其他自由的人民難道能拒絕肩負起這一偉大的責任么?我們難道忍心拒絕這個責任,讓全世界的人傷心么?我們不能退縮,美國應該指明道路。光芒灑在前進的路上,而不是別的地方。"

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: The Senate Foreign Relations Committee began hearings on the treaty. It heard a number of people who opposed the League of Nations. They said the league would destroy the freedom and independence of the United States.

參議員外交關系委員會開始為凡爾賽和約舉行聽證會。很多反對國聯的人在會上發言。這些人說,國聯會摧毀美國的自由和獨立。

The committee completed its hearings and prepared a report for the full Senate. The report said the United States should reject the treaty, unless changes were made. The committee proposed almost forty changes.

委員會在聽證會結束后起草了一份報告,準備呈交給參議院全體審閱。報告說,美國應該拒絕凡爾賽和約,除非對和約內容進行改動。而委員會提議的改動有將近40處。

LARRY WEST: The committee's report was a blow to President Wilson both politically and personally. He had worked extremely hard to win Europe's support for the idea of a league of nations. Great crowds in Paris had cheered him and his idea. Now, the Senate of his own country was about to reject it.

無論從政治角度還是個人角度,這份報告都是對威爾遜的巨大打擊。他為了贏得歐洲對國聯計劃的支持費盡了心力。在巴黎,人們成群結隊地為他歡呼,支持他建立國聯的理念??墒?,他自己國家的參議院卻將把這個理念扼殺。

Wilson decided he must take his case out of the hands of the peoples' representatives. He would take the case directly to the people themselves. He would build public support for the treaty. If enough citizens supported it, he believed, the Senate could not reject it.

威爾遜決定,不能讓議員們決定國聯的命運。他要把這個理念直接交給人民裁定。他將尋求公眾對凡爾賽和約的支持。如果有足夠多的美國人支持,參議院就不能拒絕它。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: President Wilson planned a speaking trip all across the country. His family and his doctor urged him not to go. They said he was still weak from a recent sickness. But Wilson refused the advice. He said the treaty was more important to him than his own life.

威爾遜計劃到全國各地去演說,但他的家人和醫生勸他不要去。他們說,威爾遜舊病未愈,身體虛弱。但是威爾遜拒絕了他們的建議,他說,這份協約比他的命還重要。

The president left Washington in early September. He traveled in a special train.

9月初,威爾遜離開華盛頓,乘坐專列開始了演講之旅。

In city after city, he made speeches and rode in parades. He shook thousands of hands. At times, he suffered from a painful headache. But there was no time to rest.

他在一個又一個城市發表演說,參加游行,和成千上萬人握手。有時他因頭疼而痛苦不已,可是沒有時間休息。

LARRY WEST: Everywhere Wilson stopped, he urged the people to support the League of Nations. It was, he said, the only hope for peace.

威爾遜每到一個地方,都敦促人們支持建立國聯。他說,國聯是實現和平的唯一希望。

In Boulder, Colorado, ten thousand people waited to hear him. By then, Wilson was extremely weak. He had to be helped up the steps of the building where he was to speak. He made the speech. He said he was working to honor the men who had died in the war. He said he was working for the children of the world.

在科羅拉多州博爾德市,1萬人等著聽威爾遜演講。那時,威爾遜的身體已經很虛弱了。他必須靠人攙扶才能走上演講場地的臺階。在演講中,他說,他這么做是為了紀念在戰爭中犧牲的人,是為了世界上所有兒童的未來。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Wilson put all his heart and energy into his speeches. And, as his family and doctor had warned, the pressure was too great. While in Wichita, Kansas, the pain in his head became terrible. He could not speak clearly. His face seemed frozen. A blood vessel had broken in his brain. Wilson had suffered a stroke.

威爾遜把所有的心血和精力都放在了這些演講中。而正如他的家人和醫生警告的那樣,他的壓力太大了。威爾遜到達堪薩斯州的威奇塔時,他的頭疼已經變得非常嚴重。他不能清楚地講話,而且面部僵硬。原來,他腦袋里有一根血管爆裂,他中風了。

The president was forced to return to Washington. His condition got worse every day. Soon, he was unable to move.

威爾遜只好返回華盛頓,他的情況一天不如一天,很快就喪失了行動能力。

Woodrow Wilson would spend the rest of his presidency as a terribly sick man. He continued to hold on to his dreams of a League of Nations. But his dreams now filled a broken body.

從那時起直到卸任總統之職,威爾遜一直重病纏身。他繼續堅守著建立國聯的夢,可是他的身體已經徹底垮了。

We will continue our story next week.

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Shirley Griffith and Larry West.

You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.666321.live. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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作者:鄭烈波
but his dreams now filled a broken body.
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