官方APP下載:英語全能特訓(微信小程序版,支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
創辦于2003年
UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
  Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
公眾微信服務號
英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
客服短信:18913948480
客服郵箱:[email protected]
初級VIP會員
全站英語學習資料下載。
¥98元/12個月

#23: Debating Slaves' Part in Representation of States

閱讀次數:


VIP會員專享下載:(非VIP會員無權下載!如果想下載,但還不是VIP會員,請點此訂購
下載方式:使用鼠標右鍵(注意是鼠標右鍵?。c擊下面的MP3音頻/MP4視頻鏈接,然后選擇“另存為…”。
MP3節目錄音(英文版) MP3節目錄音(英文版)  MP3節目錄音(中文版) MP3節目錄音(中文版)  PDF節目文稿 PDF節目文稿 
文章正文
同步字幕

ANNOUNCER:

This map of Philadelpia, drawn in 1777, shows streams, roads and the names of landowners. Independence Hall, home of the federal convention of 1787, is shown at the bottom.
This map of Philadelpia, drawn in 1777, shows streams, roads and the names of landowners. Independence Hall, home of the federal convention of 1787, is shown at the bottom.

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

In May of seventeen eighty-seven, a group of the nation's early leaders opened a convention in Philadelphia. They planned to change the Articles of Confederation, which created a weak union of the thirteen states. Instead, they wrote a new document.

This week in our series, we continue the story of the United States Constitution. Here are Frank Oliver and Tony Riggs.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Last week, we told how the convention finally agreed on how states would be represented in the national government.

上次我們談到,費城制憲大會的代表們終于在國會代表權的問題上達成了妥協。

There would be two houses in the national legislature. In one house -- the House of Representatives -- the number of representatives from each state would depend on the state's population. In the other house -- the Senate -- all states would have an equal number of representatives.

大會決定,美國國會由參、眾兩院組成。眾議院來自各州的議員人數根據各州人口數量決定。參議院的議員人數各州相同,跟人口無關。

The agreement on representation was known as the "Great Compromise." Not all the delegates in Philadelphia were pleased with it. But it saved the convention from failure.

這一妥協方案雖然沒有讓費城制憲大會的所有代表都感到滿意,但卻使制憲大會避免了失敗。

VOICE ONE:

The debate on representation in the House raised an important issue. No one wanted to talk about it. But all the delegates knew they must discuss it. The issue was slavery. If representation was based on population, who would you count? Would you count just free people? Or would you count Negro slaves, too?

有關眾議院議員人數的辯論,涉及到另外一個重要的問題。雖然沒有人愿意觸及這個問題,但是大家都知道,這個問題是無法回避的,這就是奴隸的問題。如果各州眾議員的人數由人口決定,那么在清點人口的時候,要不要把黑奴包括進去呢?

There were thousands of slaves in the United States in seventeen eighty-seven. Most lived in southern states. But many could be found in the north, too. And northern ship owners made a lot of money by importing slaves from Africa.

1787年的時候,美國有成千上萬的黑奴,他們大都居住在南方地區,但是北方也有。北方的船主們從非洲進口奴隸,以此發了大財。

VOICE TWO:

The Articles of Confederation said nothing about slavery. Each state could decide to permit it or not. Massachusetts, for example, had made slavery illegal. Nine other states had stopped importing new slaves. Only three states -- Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina -- continued to import slaves.

《邦聯條例》中沒有涉及奴隸問題,由各州自己決定是否允許奴隸制度的存在。比如說麻薩諸塞州就規定,奴隸制是非法的。當時,另外的九個州也停止了奴隸進口。只有喬治亞、北卡羅來納和南卡羅來納三個州還在繼續進口奴隸。

Isaac Jefferson was one of about 600 slaves owned by Thomas Jefferson during his lifetime
Isaac Jefferson was one of about 600 slaves owned by Thomas Jefferson during his lifetime

The issue was never easy to discuss. Some of the most important men in America owned slaves. They included George Washington and James Madison.

奴隸問題是一個非常棘手的問題。美國歷史上很多重要人物都是奴隸主,其中就包括喬治·華盛頓和詹姆斯·麥迪遜。

No one wanted to insult these men. Yet the convention had to make some decisions about slavery. Slavery affected laws on trade and taxes, as well as the question of representation in Congress.

沒有人愿意冒犯這些人,但是制憲大會又必須在奴隸問題上做出決定。奴隸制對美國的貿易法、稅法、乃至國會的代表權,都有影響。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

During the debate, some delegates argued that slaves were property. They could not be counted for purposes of representation. Others argued that slaves were people and should be counted with everyone else.

在辯論中,一些代表認為,奴隸是個人財產,所以在決定各州的議員人數時,不必被計算在人口當中;另外一些代表則表示,奴隸也是人,應該跟其它人一樣,被計算在內。

Gouverneur Morris of Pennsylvania made an angry speech. "Slavery," he declared, "is an evil institution. It has caused great sadness and poverty in all the states where it is permitted."

賓夕法尼亞州的格瓦諾·莫里斯發表了憤怒的演講。他宣稱,“奴隸制是一種邪惡的制度,給所有允許奴隸制存在的州帶來了巨大的悲哀和貧困。”

Charles Pinckney of South Carolina defended the existence of slavery in the United States. "In all ages," he said, "one half of mankind have been slaves."

南卡羅來納州的查爾斯·平克尼則為奴隸制的存在進行辯護。他說,“有史以來,從來都是有一半人充當奴隸。”

George Mason of Virginia, a slave owner, wanted to free all slaves. He said Virginia attempted to do this when it was a British colony. But he said the British government blocked Virginia's attempts. Mason blamed the problem on British businessmen who made money from slavery.

維吉尼亞州的喬治·梅森雖然自己是奴隸主,但他卻希望解放所有奴隸。他說,還是英屬殖民地的時候,維吉尼亞州就想給奴隸自由,但是受到了英國政府的阻擾,他認為,問題出在靠奴隸制賺了大錢的英國商人身上。

VOICE TWO:

In states where slaves were considered as persons before the law, they sued for, and sometimes won, their freedom in the courts. Elizabeth Freeman was freed in Massachusetts in 1781.
In states where slaves were considered as persons before the law, they sued for, and sometimes won, their freedom in the courts. Elizabeth Freeman was freed in Massachusetts in 1781.

Other delegates rose to denounce or defend slavery. But the convention had no power to rule on whether slavery was right or wrong.

其它代表也紛紛發言,對奴隸制度提出譴責或是辯護,但是制憲大會沒有權力裁定奴隸制度是對是錯。

Everyone knew the convention would fail if it tried to write a Constitution that banned slavery. The southern states would never accept such a document. They would refuse to join the United States.

每個人都知道,如果把禁止奴隸制寫進憲法,制憲大會必將以失敗告終。南部各州絕對不會接受,他們會拒絕加入美國。

Rufus King of Massachusetts said the convention should consider slavery only as a political matter. And that is what happened. The convention accepted several political compromises on the issue.

麻薩諸塞州的魯弗斯·金說,制憲大會應該按照政治事務來處理奴隸制的問題,大會結果采納了他的意見。制憲大會的代表們決定按照政治事務來處理奴隸制的問題,并且在這個問題上達成了不少妥協。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

James Wilson of Pennsylvania, for example, proposed a method of counting each state's population for purposes of representation. All white persons and other free citizens would be counted as one each. Every five slaves would be counted only as three persons. This was called the 'three-fifths' rule. The delegates accepted it.

比如說,賓夕法尼亞州的詹姆斯·威爾遜建議,在統計各州人口的時候,所有的白人和其他自由人都按照一個人來計算,但是每五個黑奴算做三個人,被稱為“五分之三”的規則。這一建議得到了制憲大會的接受。

The word 'slave' was never used in the Constitution. It simply used the words 'all other persons.' The 'three-fifths rule' remained law until the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution was passed in eighteen sixty-eight.

美國憲法里找不到“奴隸”一詞,凡是提到奴隸的時候,就說“其他人等”。“五分之三”規則直到1868年第14項憲法修正案成為法律后才失效。

Alexander Hamilton said the three-fifths compromise was necessary. "Without it," he said, "no union could possibly have been formed."

亞歷山大·漢密爾頓說,制憲大會圍繞“五分之三”規則達成的妥協是十分必要的,沒有它,美國就不可能形成聯盟。

VOICE TWO:

Map of West Africa during the 18th century slave trade
Map of West Africa during the 18th century slave trade

Slavery also became an issue when the convention began discussing the powers of the national legislature. Once again, the question was asked: Are slaves people? Or are they property? The answer would affect import taxes and the growth of new states.

制憲大會討論國會權力的時候,也遇到了奴隸制的問題。奴隸是人還是財產,這個問題的答案關系到進口稅和新的州的發展。

The convention accepted several compromises on these questions, too. It agreed that the national treasury could collect a tax of ten dollars for every imported slave. It also agreed that slaves could be imported until the year eighteen-oh-eight. Then no new slaves could be brought into the country.

制憲大會經過討論,最后達成妥協,財政部可以對每個進口的奴隸征收十美元的稅,并把1808年定為進口奴隸的最后期限。

Until then, each state had the power to make its own decisions about slavery. After eighteen-oh-eight, the national government would make all decisions.

在此之前,各州有權自行決定奴隸的問題,1808年后,決定權就要收歸聯邦政府。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

As debate on a new Constitution continued through the summer of seventeen eighty-seven, several delegates asked an important question. Who would approve, or ratify, it?

1787年夏天費城制憲大會的代表們圍繞新憲法展開辯論的過程中,有人提出一個問題:這部憲法最后應該由誰來批準?

The state legislatures? The people? Or, as Gouverneur Morris proposed, one big national convention? As always, Elbridge Gerry opposed giving this power to the people. "The people," he said, "have the wildest ideas of government in the world."

是州議會、是人民,還是象格瓦諾·莫里斯建議的,由一個全民大會批準呢?這時候,埃爾布里奇·格里再次站出來,反對將權力交給人民。他說,“普通人對政府的概念是世界上最荒誕的。”

VOICE TWO:

James Madison disagreed. He believed the people must ratify their new plan of government. Madison said, "I consider the difference between a system founded on the legislatures only, and one founded on the people, to be the true difference between a treaty and a constitution."

詹姆斯·麥迪遜針鋒相對,提出了不同的看法。他認為,新政府的規劃必須得到人民的批準。他說,“我認為,一個由議會批準的政府跟一個由人民批準的政府之間的根本區別是一項協定和一部憲法之間的區別。”

Edmund Randolph of Virginia proposed that state conventions should consider the document prepared by the Philadelphia convention. They could offer amendments, he said. And then another general convention would decide on a final document.

維吉尼亞州的埃德蒙·倫道夫建議,各州開會審議費城大會擬定的憲法草案,可以提出修正意見,最后再由一個全體大會定奪。

VOICE ONE:

Gouverneur Morris agreed, but for another reason. He said, "I have long wished for another convention that would have the firmness to provide a strong central government...which we are afraid to do."

格瓦諾·莫里斯表示贊同,但是出于另外一個原因。他說,“我一直希望能召集一個大會,這個大會的代表們有決心去建立一個我們不敢建立的強大的中央政府。”

James Madison hated the idea. Calling another general convention would mean the Philadelphia convention had failed. It would mean the end of all his hard work and hopes. When the debate was over, the delegates agreed that the people should ratify the new Constitution through conventions held in each state.

詹姆斯·麥迪遜則痛恨這種主張,因為再次召集會議就意味著費城制憲大會的失敗,意味著他的艱苦努力和希望將化為泡影。與會代表最后決定,新憲法應該通過各州召集的大會,由人民來批準。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Finally, the delegates had to decide how many 'yes' votes by states would be needed to ratify the Constitution.

大會代表們最后還要決定憲法生效需要多少個州的同意。

Any changes to the Articles of Confederation needed ratification by all thirteen states. The Philadelphia convention was called only to change those Articles. So all thirteen would have to approve. This, as several delegates noted, would be impossible. After all, Rhode Island never sent a representative to Philadelphia. It was sure to reject the Constitution.

大家都記得,召開費城大會的初衷是要修改《邦聯條例》,根據規定,修改《邦聯條例》需要13個州的批準,按理說,新憲法也應該得到13個州的批準才能生效。然而,有些代表提出,這是不可能的,因為羅德島根本沒派代表前來開會,當然不會投票贊成新憲法。

Also, as everyone knew, the Philadelphia convention went far past the point of changing the Articles of Confederation. The delegates wrote a completely new plan of government. They could agree to accept ratification by fewer than thirteen states.

此外,大家都知道,費城大會并不是對《邦聯條例》進行了修改,而是重新擬定了一個新的政府規劃。因此他們有權決定,憲法無須13個州的同意。

VOICE ONE:

Delegates who supported a strong central government acted quickly. They raised the question of numbers. How many states were needed to ratify? By the end of the day, the convention had not decided. But many of the delegates must have met that night. Early the next day, the convention voted. And the number it agreed on was nine.

主張建立強大中央政府的代表們迅速采取行動,提出了需要多少個州的同意,才能讓憲法生效的問題。代表們當天沒能做出決定,但是很多代表那天晚上肯定是再次碰了頭,因為第二天大會投票,最后決定,只要九個州同意,憲法就可以宣布生效。

The great convention in Philadelphia was nearing the end of its work. It needed only to write out its agreements in final form and sign the document. That will be our story next week.

費城的制憲大會到此已經接近尾聲,剩下的唯一工作就是要撰寫并簽署憲法落實成文字,然后加以簽署。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Christine Johnson and narrated by Frank Oliver and Tony Riggs. Join us next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION as we finish the story of the United States Constitution. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our series are at www.666321.live.

網友的學習評論(4條):
作者:xuding45
In this part, many representations would talk about slaves. Some people thought that slaves should be regnized to poverty and others thought not. At final they had a compromise which could be decided by different states
作者:Stella
America is not easyb
作者:鄭烈波
the great convention in philadelphia was nearing the end of its work.it needed only to write out its agreements in final form and sign the document.
作者:hliu
A perfect plan that pleases every side is always less possible. Compromise is needed. Or we could not move on. I am wondering why delegates at Penesylvania convention are told so shortly, they could have had certain powers.
版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
網站備案:蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
廣播臺
中国北京福彩中心地址 股票怎么玩下什么软 516棋牌官网 牛的对应数字 街机电玩捕鱼游戏 广西双彩开奖走势图 百度 能赚钱的手机网游 黑龙江36选7开奖结果第100期 四肖期期中准全年资料 千炮捕鱼官方正式版 大嘴棋牌刨幺苹果下载