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#3: A Difficult Life for English Settlers in the New World 第3集 - 英國與西班牙爭奪新大陸,英國定居者在新大陸掙扎求生

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VOICE ONE:

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

VOICE TWO:

And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special English program about the history of the United States. Today, we tell about the first permanent English settlements in North America.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

England was the first country to compete with Spain for claims in the New World, although it was too weak to do this openly at first. But Queen Elizabeth of England supported such explorations as early as the fifteen seventies.

英國是第一個跟西班牙爭奪新大陸的歐洲國家。伊麗莎白女王從十六世紀七十年代就開始支持對新大陸的探險,不過,由于英國的力量比較薄弱,所以這種爭奪最初并不是正面公開的。

Sir Humphrey Gilbert led the first English settlement efforts. He did not establish any lasting settlement. He died as he was returning to England.

英國的吉爾伯特爵士領導了第一次在新大陸定居的努力,但是沒能建立長期定居點,他本人也在返回英國的途中去世。

Gilbert's half brother Sir Walter Raleigh continued his work. Raleigh sent a number of ships to explore the east coast of North America. He called the land Virginia to honor England's unmarried Queen Elizabeth.

吉爾伯特的兄弟雷利爵士繼續努力,派遣多艘船只到北美東海岸探險,他把登陸的地方命名為Virginia維吉尼亞,紀念英國終身未婚的伊麗莎白女王。

In fifteen eighty-five, about one-hundred men settled on Roanoke Island, off the coast of the present day state of North Carolina. These settlers returned to England a year later. Another group went to Roanoke the next year. This group included a number of women and children. But the supply ships Raleigh sent to the colony failed to arrive. When help got there in fifteen-ninety, none of the settlers could be found.

1585年,大約100名男子在今天美國北卡羅來納州沿海的羅厄諾克島上定居下來。這些人一年后返回英國,另外一群人次年又前往羅厄諾克島,這次來的人里多了婦女和兒童。然而,雷利爵士派來的供給船遲遲不到,1590年救援物資終于抵達的時候,一個定居者都找不到了。

History experts still are not sure what happened. Some research suggests that at least some of the settlers became part of the Indian tribe that lived in the area.

歷史學家至今不能確定到底發生了什么事情。有研究顯示,定居者中至少有一部分人加入了當地的印第安人部落。

VOICE TWO:

One reason for the delay in getting supplies to Roanoke was the attack of the Spanish Navy against England in fifteen eighty-eight. King Phillip of Spain had decided to invade England. But the small English ships combined with a fierce storm defeated the huge Spanish fleet. As a result, Spain was no longer able to block English exploration.

前往羅厄諾克島的供給船延誤航程,主要是因為英國1588年遭到了西班牙海軍的攻擊。西班牙的菲利普國王決定入侵英國,但是英國艦只的抵抗,外加強烈風暴的影響,使西班牙的進攻沒有得逞。西班牙從此再也無法阻擋英國的海上探險了。

England discovered that supporting colonies so far away was extremely costly. So Queen Elizabeth took no more action to do this. It was not until after her death in sixteen-oh-three that England began serious efforts to start colonies in America.

但是英國發現,要供養如此遙遠的殖民地,花銷實在太大。因此,伊麗莎白女王停止了向新大陸的殖民努力。直到她1603年去世后,英國才開始認真地在美洲大陸上建立殖民地。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

In sixteen-oh-six, the new English King, James the First, gave two business groups permission to establish colonies in Virginia, the area claimed by England. Companies were organized to carry out the move.

1606年,英國的新國王詹姆斯一世批準兩家公司在維吉尼亞建立殖民地。

View of historic Jamestown
View of historic Jamestown

The London Company sent one hundred settlers to Virginia in sixteen-oh-six. The group landed there in May, sixteen-oh-seven and founded Jamestown. It was the first permanent English colony in the new world.

倫敦公司1606年向維吉尼亞送去了100名定居者,這些人1607年五月抵達,后來創建了英國在新大陸的第一個永久性殖民地詹姆斯鎮。

The colony seemed about to fail from the start. The settlers did not plant their crops in time so they soon had no food. Their leaders lacked the farming and building skills needed to survive on the land. More than half the settlers died during the first winter.

然而,詹姆斯鎮的定居者出師不利,因為沒有及時播種,所以沒過多久糧食就吃完了。他們又缺乏農耕和建筑技能,第一個冬天下來,詹姆斯鎮的居民死亡過半。

VOICE TWO:

The businessmen controlling the colony from London knew nothing about living in such a wild place. They wanted the settlers to search for gold, and explore local rivers in hopes of finding a way to the East. One settler knew this was wrong. His name was Captain John Smith. He helped the colonists build houses and grow food by learning from the local Indians. Still, the Jamestown settlers continued to die each year from disease, lack of food and Indian attacks.

倫敦的商人們對殖民地艱苦的生活一無所知,他們一心希望定居者去尋找黃金,探索當地的河道,希望找到通往東方的水路。其中一名定居者知道這是錯誤的。他的名字叫約翰·史密斯。他幫定居者蓋房子,向印第安人學種莊稼,然而,詹姆斯鎮的定居者每年還是繼續死于疾病、饑餓和印第安人的襲擊。

The London Company sent six thousand settlers to Virginia between sixteen-oh-six and sixteen twenty-two. More than four thousand died during that time.

在1606年到1622年間,倫敦公司一共向維吉尼亞送去了六千名定居者,其中四千多人都沒能活下來。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

A cooking fire in a re-creation of a Powhatan Indian village
A cooking fire in a re-creation of a Powhatan Indian village

History experts say that all the settlers surely would have died without the help of the local Powhatan Indians. The Indians gave the settlers food. They taught them how to live in the forest. And the Powhatan Indians showed the settlers how to plant new crops and how to clear the land for building.

歷史學家說,如果不是當地波瓦坦印第安人的幫助,來自英國的定居者恐怕一個也活不下來。印第安人給他們食物,教他們如何在樹林里生活,還告訴他們如何種莊稼,如何蓋房子。

The settlers accepted the Indians' help. Then, however, the settlers took whatever else they wanted by force. In sixteen twenty-two, the local Indians attacked the settlers for interfering with Indian land. Three hundred forty settlers died. The colonists answered the attack by destroying the Indian tribes living along Virginia's coast.

這些定居者接受了印第安人的幫助,但后來又依靠武力搶奪印第安人的東西。1622年,當地的印第安部落為維護自己的土地向定居者發動襲擊,打死了340個定居者。定居者發動反擊,徹底摧毀了居住在維吉尼亞沿海的印第安部落。

The settlers recognized that they would have to grow their own food and survive on their own without help from England or anyone else. The Jamestown colony was clearly established by sixteen twenty-four. It was even beginning to earn money by growing and selling a new crop, tobacco.

這些定居者意識到,他們必須自己自足,不能依靠別人。1624年,詹姆斯鎮已經初具規模,甚至開始通過種植和銷售一種新的作物--煙草--來盈利了。

VOICE TWO:

The other early English settlements in North America were much to the north of Virginia, in the present state of Massachusetts. The people who settled there left England for different reasons than those who settled in Jamestown. The Virginia settlers were looking for ways to earn money for English businesses. The settlers in Massachusetts were seeking religious freedom.

維吉尼亞以北也有一些英國早期殖民地,位于今天麻薩諸塞州的位置。維吉尼亞的定居者到新大陸來的目的是給英國商人賺錢,而麻薩諸塞州的定居者卻是為了找尋宗教自由。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

King Henry the Eighth of England had separated from the Roman Catholic Church. His daughter, Queen Elizabeth, established the Protestant religion in England. It was called the Church of England, or the Anglican Church. The Anglican Church, however, was similar to that of the Roman Catholic Church.

英國國王亨利八世脫離了羅馬教廷,他的女兒伊麗莎白女王在英國建立了新教,稱為英國教會,也叫圣公會。但是圣公會跟羅馬天主教會很相似。

Not all Protestants liked this. Some wanted to leave the Anglican Church and form religious groups of their own. In sixteen-oh-six, members of one such group in the town of Scrooby did separate from the Anglican Church. About one hundred twenty-five people left England for Holland. They found problems there too, so they decided to move again...to the New World.

有些新教徒對這種情況感到不滿。有些人希望脫離圣公會,自己成立宗教團體。1606年,司克羅比村一個宗教團體的成員脫離圣公會,離開英國,前往荷蘭,他們在荷蘭同樣遇到了問題,因此決定再次啟程,到新大陸去。

These people were called pilgrims, because that is the name given to people who travel for religious purposes.

這些人為宗教的目的而遠征,被稱為清教徒pilgrims。

VOICE TWO:

An artist's depiction of the Mayflower
An artist's depiction of the Mayflower

About thirty-five pilgrims were among the passengers on a ship called the Mayflower in sixteen twenty. It left England to go to Virginia. But the Mayflower never reached Virginia. Instead, it landed to the north, on Cape Cod Bay. The group decided to stay there instead of trying to find Jamestown.

1620年,大約35名清教徒跟其他人一起,乘坐五月花號,離開英國,前往維吉尼亞。但是五月花號沒有找到維吉尼亞,而是停在了更靠北的科德角灣。船上的乘客決定就在這里住下來。

The pilgrims and the others on the Mayflower saw a need for rules that would help them live together peacefully. They believed they were not under English control since they did not land in Virginia. So they wrote a plan of government, called the Mayflower Compact. It was the first such plan ever developed in the New World.

為了和平共處,他們覺得有必要定點兒規矩。他們覺得,既然不在維吉尼亞,就不應該受英國的管轄。于是他們制定了所謂的"五月花公約",這是新大陸上的殖民地制定的第一份規劃政府的文件。

They elected a man called William Bradford as the first governor of their Plymouth Colony. We know about the first thirty years of the Plymouth Colony because William Bradford described it in his book, Of Plymouth Plantation.

他們還選舉威廉·布雷德福擔任普利茅斯殖民地的第一任總督。布雷德福撰寫的《關于普利茅斯莊園》讓后人了解到了普利茅斯殖民地前三十年的歷史。

As happened in Jamestown, about half the settlers in Plymouth died the first winter. The survivors were surprised to find an Indian who spoke English. His name was Squanto. He had been kidnapped by an English sea captain and had lived in England before returning to his people.

跟詹姆斯鎮一樣,普利茅斯大約一半的定居者也沒能熬過第一個冬天。幸存者意外地發現了一個講英文的印第安人,叫斯考托。他以前曾經被一個英國船長綁架,在英國生活一段時間后又返回了自己的部落。

The Pilgrims believed Squanto was sent to them from God. He made it possible for them to communicate with the native people. He showed them the best places to fish, what kind of crops to plant and how to grow them. He provided them with all kinds of information they needed to survive. The settlers invited the Indians to a feast in the month of November to celebrate their successes and to thank Squanto for his help. Americans remember that celebration every year when they observe the Thanksgiving holiday.

清教徒認為斯考托是上帝派來幫助他們的,幫他們跟印第安人溝通,告訴他們哪里能釣到大魚,最好的作物是什么。斯考托向他們提供了生存必須的一切知識。定居者們11月邀請印第安人來會餐,慶祝他們的成功,也感謝斯考托的幫助。這一傳統作為感恩節保留至今。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Other English settlers began arriving in the area now called New England. One large group was called the Puritans. Like the pilgrims, the Puritans did not agree with the Anglican Church. But they did not want to separate from it. The Puritans wanted to change it to make it more holy. Their desire for this change made them unwelcome in England.

還有一些英國定居者到了今天的新英格蘭地區,其中一個人數眾多的團體叫puritans,也是清教徒,但是跟普利茅斯殖民地的清教徒不同,他們雖然并不認同圣公會,但是也不希望脫離圣公會,而是希望對圣公會進行改革。

The first ship carrying Puritans left England for America in sixteen thirty. By the end of that summer, one thousand Puritans had landed in the northeastern part of the new country. The new English King, Charles, had given permission for them to settle the Massachusetts Bay area.

他們最早是1630年開始離開英國的,到夏天快要結束的時候,已經有一千名清教徒到達了新大陸的東北部。當時的英國國王查理允許他們在麻薩諸塞灣住下來。

VOICE TWO:

The Puritans began leaving England in large groups. Between sixteen thirty and sixteen forty, twenty thousand sailed for New England. They risked their lives on the dangerous trip. They wanted to live among people who believed as they did, people who honored the rules of the Bible. Puritans believed that the Bible was the word of God.

隨后,清教徒開始大批離開英國,在1630年到1640年期間,先后有兩萬名清教徒乘船前往新英格蘭。他們不顧旅途的危險,希望跟志同道合的人住在一起。他們相信,圣經是上帝的教誨。

The Puritans and other Europeans, however, found a very different people in the New World. They were America's native Indians. That will be our story next week.

然而,英國的清教徒和其他歐洲人在新大陸上發現了跟自己截然不同的人,他們就是美國的印第安土著居民。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach. This is Rich Kleinfeldt

VOICE TWO:

And this is Sarah Long. Join us again next week for another Voice of America Special English program about the history of the United States.

網友的學習評論(15條):
作者:流櫻豪
It is good.
作者:華晨
The development of human society should be due to the interaction of various factor and power. Religion is the major driving force for the development. Early explorers and setllers risked their lifes on the dangerous trips for reglion purpose and business goal . Many of them lost their lives. The survior led tough and hardship lives. Without firm belief , they can not build prosperous country.
作者:Andylu88888
happy Valentine's Day!
作者:櫻桃圓子
thanksgiving day!
作者:雅喬
the difference between puritans and pilgrims
作者:灰太狼
I think the best way to learn English is to know the history of English countries .
作者:waldenzhao
I keep learning english for years.But I can't say I'm good at english. Now, the most important thing for me is to learn as much english and american culture as possible. So this is kind of english material which I have been looking for.
作者:Shelly
American history is a perfect material for SAT writing. I am eager to learn more about this stuff.
作者:鄭烈波
make a little prograce a day.
作者:Kane
I am here today~~
作者:photon
From the first group of settlers coming from the England, to protestants, pilgrims, puritans, with a lot of settlers dying, with a war with Spain, the English people finally set up their settlement in the North America.
作者:Melody
The early English settlers failed to start their colonies due to followings factors :1) Lack the farming and building skills needed to survive on the land 2)Communication problem between the English and the Indians 3)No help from the local Powwhatan Indians 4)The Indians attacts didn't cease
作者:karen
America's native Indians
作者:hliu
Dose religion matter that much?
作者:karen
Puritans believed that the Bible was the word of God
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