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#32: John Adams Is Elected Nation's Second President

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ANNOUNCER:

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

The year seventeen ninety-six saw a change in American politics. That year, the new nation held its third presidential election. And for the first time, there was more than one candidate.

在上次的建國史話中,我們講到,美國第一位總統喬治·華盛頓連任兩屆后,決定讓賢。美國政治在1796年發生了巨大的變化。在總統大選中,第一次出現了多位候選人。

In his farewell address as president, George Washington urged Americans to view themselves as united and to avoid political parties
In his farewell address as president, George Washington urged Americans to view themselves as united and to avoid political parties

George Washington won the first two elections without opposition. But now there were two political parties. The Federalists were led by former Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton. The Republicans were led by former Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson.

喬治·華盛頓當選總統時,沒有任何競爭對手,但是1796年的時候,美國兩黨體制初具規模,聯邦黨和共和黨分別由前財政部長亞歷山大·漢密爾頓和前國務卿托馬斯·杰斐遜領導。

This week in our series, Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant tell the story of the election of seventeen ninety-six and the winner, John Adams.

VOICE TWO:

Most people expected John Adams to win. He was well known throughout the country. He had campaigned for American independence from British rule. He had served as a diplomat in Europe and as the first American minister to Britain. He was Washington's choice for vice president and had served in that position for two terms.

大多數人都估計,約翰·亞當斯會當選。畢竟,他知名度高,推動過美國獨立戰爭,曾擔任美國駐歐洲外交官,還是美國派往英國的第一位部長。除此之外,喬治·華盛頓也對他委以重任,讓他連做了兩屆副總統。

Adams was a Federalist. But he was not -- like other Federalists -- loyal to Alexander Hamilton. So Hamilton worked against Adams. He tried to win electoral support for his own candidate for president, Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina.

亞當斯是一名聯邦黨人,但是他跟其他聯邦黨人不一樣,他并不聽命于漢密爾頓。正因為如此,漢密爾頓不僅不支持亞當斯,反而跟亞當斯對著干,為自己支持的總統參選人,南卡羅來納州的托馬斯·平克尼拉選票。

VOICE ONE:

At last, the day arrived for counting the votes. The Federalists were shocked by the results. Seventy-one electors voted for John Adams. Sixty-eight voted for Republican Thomas Jefferson. Only sixty voted for Hamilton's choice, Thomas Pinckney.

計票結果出乎聯邦黨人的意料。在選舉人票中,約翰·亞當斯贏得71票,共和黨人托馬斯·杰斐遜贏得68票,而漢密爾頓支持的托馬斯·平克尼只得到了60票。

Under the electoral system used at that time, the candidate with the most votes became president. The candidate with the next largest number of votes became vice president. So America's second president would be John Adams. Its second vice president would be Thomas Jefferson.

根據當時的選舉人制度,得票最多的擔任總統,得票數量排在第二的擔任副總統,因此,約翰·亞當斯就成了美國歷史上的第二位總統,托馬斯·杰斐遜擔任第二位副總統。

VOICE TWO:

Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson

Jefferson had resigned from public service a few years earlier. But he decided to accept his election as vice president. He wrote to his friend James Madison: "I am willing to serve under President Adams. I believe Adams is the only man who can stop Alexander Hamilton from becoming president in eighteen hundred."

杰斐遜早在幾年前就已經辭去了公職,但他還是決定接受副總統的職務。他在給好友詹姆斯·麥迪遜的信中說,“我愿意做亞當斯總統的副手。我認為,亞當斯是唯一能夠阻止漢密爾頓在1800年成為總統的人?!?/p>

To Adams himself, Jefferson wrote that he valued their long friendship and hoped it would continue. Republican newspapers carried articles that were friendly to Federalist John Adams -- the first time they had done so.

杰斐遜還致函亞當斯說,他很珍視兩人的長期友誼,并希望這種友誼能夠繼續下去。共和黨人的報紙也一反常態,刊登了對聯邦黨人約翰·亞當斯表示友好的文章。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

When Adams and Jefferson took office in March, seventeen ninety-seven, some Federalists believed their political power had come to an end. But Alexander Hamilton, sitting in his law office in New York City, did not lose hope. He knew he still controlled the top Federalist leaders in Congress.

1797年三月,亞當斯和杰斐遜宣誓就職后,有些聯邦黨人覺得,他們的政治權力宣告結束了,但是坐在紐約律師事務所辦公室里的漢密爾頓并沒有灰心。他知道,國會里的主要聯邦黨領袖仍然在自己的掌控之中。

More than that, he believed he knew how to control John Adams.

不僅如此,他同時堅信,自己知道如何去控制新總統約翰·亞當斯。

The new president made Hamilton's job easy. Adams kept President Washington's cabinet. The three men who were Washington's chief government officials would now advise President Adams. Washington had appointed them at Hamilton's request. And they always did what Hamilton told them to do.

亞當斯上任后,并沒有大刀闊斧地進行改革,而是保留了華盛頓內閣的原班人馬。華盛頓任期內的三位主要政府官員留任,繼續為亞當斯出謀劃策。這些人當初都是漢密爾頓要求華盛頓任命的,因此都對漢密爾頓唯命是從。

VOICE TWO:

John Adams
John Adams

Historians still cannot explain why John Adams -- a man who did not like or trust Alexander Hamilton -- kept the three cabinet secretaries. If the secretaries had been men of great ability, then that might be an explanation. But they were not.

歷史學家始終無法解釋,亞當斯對漢密爾頓既不欣賞也不信任,為什么要保留漢密爾頓推薦的這三位內閣部長?如果這三個人都具備雄才偉略的話,還可以理解,但事實并非如此。

One was a secretary of state who knew very little about foreign relations. The second was a secretary of the treasury who knew less about finance. The third was a secretary of war who knew nothing about military matters and defense.

這三個人一個是國務卿,但是對外交關系一無所知;一個是財政部長,但是對金融理財一竅不通,還有一個是戰爭部長,但卻是軍事國防的門外漢。

Adams may have kept these men as an act of party unity. Or he may have kept them because he could not get anyone else.

亞當斯之所以保留他們,可能是為了黨內團結,也可能是苦于沒有更好的人選。

VOICE ONE:

Whatever his reason, the decision was politically costly, for the three men worked together against him. President Adams told his cabinet secretaries what he wanted. Then they went to Alexander Hamilton for orders.

歷史上對于亞當斯讓這些人留任找不到一個合理的解釋,這種做法讓亞當斯付出了沉重的政治代價。這三位部長對于總統亞當斯的指示,反其道而行之,萬事都要請示漢密爾頓的意旨。

In the end, these secret activities helped destroy the Federalist Party. And so, they made the administration of John Adams one of the most exciting and important periods in the political history of the United States.

這些秘密行動最終導致了聯邦黨的垮臺,也使約翰·亞當斯政府成為美國政治史上最重要、最令人激動的一段時期。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

As we said earlier, John Adams was a great man and a true patriot. He was born in the village of Braintree, Massachusetts, in seventeen thirty-five. He wanted to be a farmer. But he was sent to Harvard College to study to be a clergyman. He had no interest in this life and became a lawyer, instead.

我們以前講過,約翰·亞當斯是一個偉人,真正的愛國者。1735年,他在麻薩諸塞州的一個村莊里誕生,理想是長大后當農民,但后來被家里送到哈佛大學去讀神學。他對當牧師沒興趣,后來做了一名律師。

In the years before the American Revolution, John Adams wrote articles about the injustice of British rule. He also became a delegate to the First Continental Congress. He urged the Congress to appoint George Washington as commander-in-chief of American forces. He argued for the creation of an American Navy. And he helped develop the resolutions declaring American independence.

獨立戰爭爆發前,亞當斯發表文章,聲討英國統治,后來出席了第一屆大陸會議,敦促大陸會議任命喬治·華盛頓擔任大陸軍總指揮。他還提議建立海軍,并推動了美國的《獨立宣言》。

VOICE ONE:

Adams spent most of the war years in Europe. He helped win Dutch recognition of the new American nation. He also negotiated a loan from the Dutch government, as well as a treaty of friendship and commerce. After American forces defeated British forces, he helped negotiate the peace treaty between the two countries. Then he served as the first American minister to Britain.

獨立戰爭期間,亞當斯主要是在歐洲渡過的。他說服荷蘭承認美國,還從荷蘭政府那里得到了一筆貸款,并跟荷蘭簽署了友好商業協議。大陸軍戰勝英國部隊后,他又參加了兩國和平協議的談判,并出任美國第一位駐英國的部長。

Adams, like other Federalists, believed that men of money and position should govern America. He did not trust the common people. He did not support democracy. He once wrote: "In the city of Boston, there are four noble families. They are just as much a noble class as the nobility of Britain or Spain. And it is good that this aristocracy exists."

跟其他聯邦黨人一樣,亞當斯也認為美國應該由有權有勢的人來統治。他不信任普通民眾,也不支持民主。他曾經寫到,“波士頓有四個貴族家庭。他們跟英國或是西班牙的貴族沒什么兩樣,這種貴族的存在真是太好了?!?/p>

Yet John Adams had a deep love for his country. He would do whatever was necessary to keep it free.

不過,約翰·亞當斯深深地熱愛自己的國家,為了美國的自由,不惜一切代價。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Abigail Adams
Abigail Adams

Adams was extremely intelligent and was a thoughtful, lively writer. However, he often acted very coldly and said little. Or he became angry easily. His best friend probably was his wife, Abigail. He had few other friends.

亞當斯頭腦敏銳,是一個很有思想和活力的作家,但是他往往表現冷漠,沉默寡言,動不動就發脾氣。他最好的朋友是他的夫人阿比蓋爾,除此之外,幾乎沒有多少朋友。

Adams' personal weaknesses caused trouble during his presidency. He belonged to the Federalist Party. But he did not want to become involved in party arguments. And he did not want to make all the compromises necessary in the world of politics. So, other Federalists often worked against him.

亞當斯性格上的弱點給他帶來了麻煩。他當政期間,雖然屬于聯邦黨,但卻不愿卷入黨派之爭,也不愿做出政治上必要的妥協,因此招致了其他聯邦黨人的反對。

VOICE ONE:

Not many people really liked this difficult, aristocratic man. Strangely enough, one of the few who did was Thomas Jefferson.

很少有人喜歡這個難以相處,充滿貴族氣派的人。奇怪的是,亞當斯周圍為數不多的人當中,卻包括了托馬斯·杰斐遜。

This was strange, because Jefferson's political philosophy was opposed to everything Adams represented.

這很奇怪,因為杰斐遜的政治理念跟亞當斯所代表的政治理念完全相反。

Perhaps Jefferson liked Adams because he respected him for his intelligence. Perhaps he never forgot that Adams had fought hard for American independence. Or perhaps he understood that, under Adams' selfishness and weaknesses, there was an honest man who would do anything for his country.

杰斐遜喜歡亞當斯也許是因為他尊重亞當斯的智慧,也許是他從未忘記亞當斯為了美國獨立血戰到底,也許是他能理解,亞當斯雖然自私、軟弱,但亞當斯能為自己的國家做任何事。

However, there were not many like Jefferson. Most men in politics just did not like Adams. They used this fact as a weapon. It was such a strong weapon that it made people forget what Jefferson remembered. John Adams had a good mind and loved the United States. He had given many years of his life to the young nation and should be honored for it.

然而,像杰斐遜這樣的人并不多。美國政壇里的大多數人都不喜歡亞當斯。他們利用這一事實作為武器,這一武器是如此強大,以致于人們忘記了杰斐遜不曾忘記的東西。約翰·亞當斯善良、愛國,他將自己一生的許多光陰都奉獻給了這個年輕的國家,理應受到尊重。

VOICE TWO:

Federalist leaders, especially, appealed to Adams' weaknesses when they wanted his support.

For example, they knew Adams was jealous of President Washington. Adams felt Washington received too much honor, while he received not enough. Sometimes, if Adams knew the president's opinion on a question, he would develop a different opinion. Yet Washington -- like Jefferson -- respected Adams. He felt the new nation needed Adams' skills.

比如,他們知道亞當斯嫉妒華盛頓總統。亞當斯覺得華盛頓獲得的贊譽過多,而自己獲得的贊譽太少。有時,如果亞當斯知道華盛頓總統對某個問題的觀點,他就會提出不同觀點。然而,就跟杰斐遜一樣,華盛頓尊重亞當斯,他覺得這個年輕的國家需要亞當斯的才能。

VOICE ONE:

Adams won the presidency in seventeen ninety-six. But his term would be difficult. His own party, the Federalists, did not trust him. And he did not have the support of the general public. The people knew he did not like them.

亞當斯贏得了1796年的總統大選,但他的任期困難重重。他自己的黨派,聯邦黨人并不信任他。他也沒能獲得普通大眾的支持。人民知道,亞當斯并不喜歡他們。

Adams did not expect the job to be easy. He once wrote: "In politics, a man must always walk on broken glass and red-hot iron. It is not easy to do this when you are not wearing shoes. But some men must do it. There are many dangerous things that have to be done for our country in these dangerous times. If nobody else will do them, I will."

亞當斯也并未期望這是份輕松的工作。他曾經寫道:“在政壇里,人必須時刻行走在刀鋒之上,如果你沒有穿鞋,就會面臨巨大困難。但有些人必須這樣做。在我們國家的危急關頭,我們必須做很多危險的事情。如果沒有別人愿意做,那我會做?!?/p>

We will continue the story of John Adams next week.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Harold Braverman and Christine Johnson. The narrators were Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION, an American history series in VOA Special English. Transcripts, podcasts and MP3s of our programs are at www.666321.live.

網友的學習評論(3條):
作者:xuding45
John Adams was elected as the second president in the nation. He didn't like the federalists and republicans. He had a different idea and didn't like the compromises. Though John Adams' selfishness and weakness, he was thought to a patriot although in his life.
作者:Alumni
John Adams, elected second President of USA, left a famous saying as a politician: In politics ,a man must always walk on broken glass and red-hot iron. my God, how about businessman, novelist, litterateur and artist?
作者:鄭烈波
JOHN ADAMS IS ELECTED NATIONS SECOND PRESIDEND
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