官方APP下載:英語全能特訓(微信小程序版,支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
創辦于2003年
UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
  Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
公眾微信服務號
英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
客服短信:18913948480
客服郵箱:[email protected]
初級VIP會員
全站英語學習資料下載。
¥98元/12個月

#37: Jefferson Moves to Cut Debt, Spending

閱讀次數:


VIP會員專享下載:(非VIP會員無權下載!如果想下載,但還不是VIP會員,請點此訂購
下載方式:使用鼠標右鍵(注意是鼠標右鍵?。c擊下面的MP3音頻/MP4視頻鏈接,然后選擇“另存為…”。
MP3節目錄音(英文版) MP3節目錄音(英文版)  MP3節目錄音(中文版) MP3節目錄音(中文版)  PDF節目文稿 PDF節目文稿 
文章正文
同步字幕

ANNOUNCER:

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – an American history series in VOA Special English.

By eighteen hundred and one, Thomas Jefferson of Virginia had already done much for his country. He wrote the Declaration of Independence in seventeen seventy-six. He served as America's first ambassador to France and its first secretary of state. Now he would govern the nation.

在上次的建國史話中,我們講到,1801年美國新總統托馬斯·杰斐遜宣誓就職。他是美國的功臣,1776年撰寫美國獨立宣言,后來曾任派駐法國的第一任使節,也是美國的第一位國務卿。如今,他走馬上任,成為美國的第三位總統。

This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Richard Rael continue the story of America's third president.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Thomas Jefferson by Moses Jacob Ezekiel
Thomas Jefferson by Moses Jacob Ezekiel

Thomas Jefferson was happy and hopeful as he took office. His new political party, the Republicans, had defeated the older Federalist Party. The Federalists had controlled the government for twelve years.

杰斐遜上任之初,意氣風發。他所領導的共和黨擊敗了12年來一直控制著政府的聯邦黨。

America's first president, George Washington, was not a Federalist. But Federalists controlled the cabinet and the Congress during Washington's two terms. America's second president, John Adams, was a Federalist. So the party continued its control during his term.

雖然美國開國總統華盛頓并不是聯邦黨人,但是在他八年的任期內,內閣和國會始終在聯邦黨人的控制之下。第二位總統約翰·亞當斯本人就是聯邦黨人,使聯邦黨的主導地位得以繼續。

VOICE ONE:

The Federalists and the Republicans held very different opinions about how to govern the nation. Yet the change in power from one party to the other took place peacefully.

對于治國之道,聯邦黨人和共和黨人意見分歧,但是兩黨之間的權力交替卻是以和平方式實現的。

Thomas Jefferson recognized the importance of this fact. He said: "What we have done in this country is all new. The force of public opinion is new. But the most important and pleasing newness is that we have changed our government without violence. This shows a strength of American character that will give long life to our republic."

托馬斯·杰斐遜認識到了這一事實的重要性。他曾經說過,“我們這個國家所做的一切都是全新的。公眾輿論的力量是全新的。但最重要、最令人愉快的新事物是,我們沒有借助暴力手段,就實現了政府的交替。這種情況顯示了美國的力量,這種力量會讓我們的共和體制永世長存。”

VOICE TWO:

President Jefferson wanted to work with Federalists for the good of the nation. But he chose no Federalists for his cabinet. All the cabinet officers were strong Republicans. All were loyal to Thomas Jefferson.

為了國家利益,杰斐遜總統希望跟聯邦黨人合作,但是他沒有挑選聯邦黨人進入內閣,所有內閣大臣都是對杰斐遜忠心耿耿的鐵桿共和黨人。

James Madison of Virginia was secretary of state; Albert Gallatin of Pennsylvania, secretary of the treasury; General Henry Dearborn of New Hampshire, secretary of war; Robert Smith of Maryland, secretary of the Navy; and Levi Lincoln of Massachusetts, attorney general.

維吉尼亞州的詹姆斯·麥迪遜擔任國務卿、賓夕法尼亞州的阿爾伯特·加勒廷擔任財政部長、新罕布什爾州的亨利·迪爾伯恩將軍擔任戰爭部長、馬里蘭州的羅伯特·史密斯擔任海軍部長,麻薩諸塞州的利瓦伊·林肯擔任司法部長。

VOICE ONE:

For other government positions, Jefferson decided to take a middle road. He would remove all officials appointed by former President John Adams during his lame duck period. That was the time after Jefferson won the election, but before he took office. He also would remove all officials found guilty of dishonesty.

對于其他政府官員,杰斐遜決定采取中間路線。凡是從他當選到就職這段時間里被亞當斯總統任命的一律免職,所有不誠實的官員也被掃地出門。

He said: "Federalists in government positions have nothing to fear if they have acted honestly and with justice. Those who have acted badly must go. As for the men I appoint to office, they must be of the highest character. I will accept no others."

杰斐遜說,“政府里的聯邦黨人,只要誠實公正,就不用害怕。但行為惡劣者恕不挽留。我任命的官員必須品德高尚,否則一概不用。”

VOICE TWO:

Federalist leaders denounced Jefferson's policy. They thought all Federalists should keep their government jobs. Many Republican leaders denounced Jefferson, too. They thought no Federalist should have a government job. The president was caught between the two groups.

聯邦黨領袖痛斥杰斐遜的政策,他們覺得,所有聯邦黨人都應該保持職務。很多共和黨人也指責杰斐遜,認為不能讓任何聯邦黨人留任。杰斐遜被夾在了中間。

He finally answered his critics. "Shouts and screams from Federalists or Republicans," he said, "will not force me to remove one more official, or one less. I will do what I think is right and just."

最后,他對批判者做出回應。杰斐遜說,“來自聯邦黨人和共和黨人的大聲吼叫不會讓我多解除,也不會讓我少解除任何一個官員的職務,我會按照自己的判斷去做。”

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Ivory note pages owned by Thomas Jefferson
Ivory note pages owned by Thomas Jefferson

Once President Jefferson formed his cabinet, he began planning the policies of his administration. His two closest advisers were Secretary of State Madison and Treasury Secretary Gallatin. First, they discussed financial policy.

杰斐遜組閣完畢后,開始著手制定政策。國務卿麥迪遜和財政部長加勒廷是他的左膀右臂。首先是金融政策。

They agreed that the government must stop spending as much money as it did under former president Adams. So, government departments would get less money. They also agreed that the government must pay its debts as quickly as possible.

他們三人一致同意,政府必須縮減開支,這就意味著減少政府機構的資金。他們還決定,政府必須盡快償還債務。

The government owed millions of dollars. Each year, the debt grew larger because of the interest on these loans.

當時,美國政府有兩百萬美元的債務,加上利息,越滾越大。

Albert Gallatin said: "We must have a strong policy. The debt must be paid. If we do not do this, our children, our grandchildren, and many generations to come will have to pay for our mistakes."

財政部長加勒廷說,“我們必須要有堅定的政策,債務一定要還清。否則的話,我們的子孫后代就要為我們的錯誤付出代價?!?/p>

VOICE TWO:

President Jefferson wanted to pay the government debt. He also wanted to cut taxes on the production and sale of some products, such as whiskey and tobacco. He hoped the government could get all the money it needed from import taxes and from the sale of public lands.

杰斐遜希望償還政府債務,他同時也想減少威士忌和煙草等產品的生產和銷售稅。他希望政府能依靠進口稅和出售公有土地,得到必要的資金。

Jefferson began saving money by ending unnecessary jobs in the executive branch. He reduced the number of American ambassadors. He dismissed all tax inspectors.

為了節省開支,杰斐遜大刀闊斧,砍掉了政府里很多不必要的職務,他還減少了美國駐外使節的數量,遣散了所有稅務檢查官。

Congress would have to take the next steps. "Most government offices," Jefferson said, "were created by laws of Congress. Congress alone must act on these positions. The citizens of the United States have paid for these jobs with their taxes. It is not right or just for the government to take more than it needs from the people."

下面就要看國會了。杰斐遜說,“大多數政府部門都是國會立法建立的,因此只有國會才能做出改變。美國公民交稅養活官員,政府不能過分要求人民付出,這樣做于情于理都說不通。”

Jefferson especially wanted Congress to reduce the judicial branch. He hoped to dismiss all the Federalist judges former President Adams appointed during his last days in office. These men were known as "midnight judges."

杰斐遜尤其希望國會裁減司法體系的編制,解除亞當斯總統任期最后一段時間里任命的所有聯邦黨籍的所謂“午夜”法官。

VOICE ONE:

The Federalists were furious. They accused Jefferson of trying to destroy the courts. They warned that his financial program would crush the nation. They declared there would be anarchy if Federalist officials were dismissed.

聯邦黨人氣憤填膺。他們指責杰斐遜試圖破壞法院體制。他們警告說,杰斐遜的財政計劃會把國家毀掉。他們宣布,如果解除聯邦黨籍官員的職務,社會就會陷入無政府狀態。

Most people, however, were happy. They liked what Jefferson said. They especially liked his plan to cut taxes.

然而,杰斐遜的主張讓大多數人感到滿意,尤其是他的減稅計劃。

Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton

Jefferson's biggest critic was his long-time political opponent, Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton had served as the nation's first treasury secretary. Now, he was a private lawyer in New York City. He published his criticism of Jefferson in a newspaper he started, the New York Evening Post.

杰斐遜最主要的批判者是他的政治宿敵亞歷山大·漢密爾頓。漢密爾頓曾擔任美國第一任財政部長,后來解甲歸田,在紐約開業當律師。他在自己創辦的紐約晚報上發表文章,批判杰斐遜的政策。

VOICE TWO:

While the public debated Jefferson's policies, the Congress debated his proposal to reduce the number of federal courts. Federalist congressmen claimed that the president was trying to interfere with the judiciary. This, they said, violated the Constitution.

就在社會各界公開討論杰斐遜的政策之際,美國國會也在討論杰斐遜提出的減少聯邦法院數量的建議。聯邦黨籍國會議員稱,杰斐遜這樣做是干預司法,違反憲法。

Republican congressmen argued that the Constitution gave Congress the power to create courts and to close them. They said the former administration had no right to appoint the so-called "midnight judges."

但是共和黨籍國會議員則爭辯說,憲法給了國會創立法院的權力,也給了國會關閉法院的權力。他們指出,上屆政府本來就無權任命那些所謂的“午夜”法官。

The Republicans won the argument. Congress approved President Jefferson's proposal on the courts.

最后,共和黨人占了上風,國會批準了杰斐遜總統減少法院數量的建議。

VOICE ONE:

Next, Congress debated the president's proposal to cut taxes. Federalists said it was dangerous for the government to depend mainly on import taxes. They said such a policy would lead to smuggling. People would try to bring goods into the United States secretly, without paying taxes on them.

接下來,國會又圍繞減稅的提案展開討論。聯邦黨人說,政府開支完全依靠進口稅是很危險的,這種政策會導致走私猖獗。大家為了逃稅,會設法把商品走私運進國界。

Federalists also said that if the United States cut taxes, it would not have enough money to pay its debts. Then no one would want to invest in the United States again.

聯邦黨人還說,如果減稅,政府就沒有足夠的錢還債,這樣一來,就沒有人愿意再投資給美國了。

VOICE TWO:

Republicans said they were not afraid of smugglers. The danger, they said, would come from taxing the American people. There was no need for production and sales taxes. And, they said, the American people knew it. The Republicans also said they were sure the government would have enough money to pay its debts.

共和黨人則指出,走私并不可怕,危險在于對美國人民的苛捐雜稅。他們說,政府沒有必要征收生產和銷售稅,美國人民清楚地知道這一點。共和黨人還說,他們可以肯定,政府有足夠的錢可以還債。

The Republicans won this legislative fight, too. Both the Senate and the House of Representatives voted to approve the president's plan to cut taxes.

最后,共和黨人再次取得勝利,國會參眾兩院一致投票批準了杰斐遜總統減稅的計劃。

VOICE ONE:

Congress then turned to other business. But the question of the midnight judges would not die. In fact, the Supreme Court would hear the case of one of those judges. Its decision gave the court an extremely important power, which it still uses today.

國會繼續討論其它事務。然而,“午夜”法官的問題并沒有就此消失。美國最高法院聽取了其中一個法官的案子,其裁決授予了最高法院一項極其重要的權力,這項權力一直保持到今天。

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Christine Johnson and Harold Braverman. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Richard Rael. Join us each week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English. Transcripts, podcasts and MP3s of our programs can be found at www.666321.live.

網友的學習評論(3條):
作者:xuding45
Thomas Jefferson serviced as the third president. He chose no one Federalist in his cabinet and there were all Republicans which were loyal to him. During the term of service he removed many officials and cut Americans' taxes, he also tried to the midnight judges who were appointed by Adams, at final he lost it.
作者:Alumni
perspnal influence was great yet. we know that from Jefferson's cabinet which was formed by his own will. we know that Jefferson chose no Federalists for his cabinet.
作者:鄭烈波
its decision gave the court an extremely important power,which it still uses today.
版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
網站備案:蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
廣播臺
中国北京福彩中心地址 今日五粮液股票价格 广西双彩最新开奖结果 直播篮球在线直播 幸运赛车查询工具 广西双彩基本走势图 上海11选5开奖结果360 最新捕鱼游戏平台下载 幸运赛车网 微乐吉林长春麻将历史版本 江苏11选五前三组选遗漏