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#58: For President Jackson, a Question of States' Rights

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Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

In our last few programs, we described the presidential election campaign of eighteen-twenty-eight. It split the old Republican Party of Thomas Jefferson into two hostile groups: the National Republicans of John Quincy Adams and the Democrats of Andrew Jackson. The election of Jackson deepened the split. It became more serious as a new dispute arose over import taxes.

Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson

This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Stewart Spencer continue the story of Andrew Jackson's presidency.

VOICE ONE:

Congress passed a bill in eighteen twenty-eight that put high taxes on a number of imported products. The purpose of the import tax was to protect American industries from foreign competition. The South opposed the tax, because it had no industry to protect. Its chief product was cotton, which was exported to Europe.

美國國會1828年通過一項立法,對一系列進口商品大幅度征收關稅。這項立法的目的是為了保護美國工業免受外來競爭的壓迫。美國南方各州反對這項立法,因為南方是農業區,沒有工業需要保護,南方主要產品是向歐洲出口的棉花。

The American import taxes forced European nations to put taxes on American cotton. This meant a drop in the sale of cotton and less money for the planters of the South. It also meant higher prices in the American market for manufactured goods.

美國如果對進口商品征收關稅,歐洲就會對美國出口的棉花征收對等關稅,這樣一來,不僅南方的棉花銷量會降低,使南方農場主的收入減少,同時也會讓美國市場上工業品的價格提高。

South Carolina refused to pay the import tax. It said the tax was not constitutional, that the constitution did not give the federal government the power to order a protective tax.

南卡羅來納州拒付進口稅,并表示,進口稅不符合憲法,憲法沒有給予聯邦政府征收保護性關稅的權力。

John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun

VOICE TWO:

At one time, the vice president of the United States -- John C. Calhoun of South Carolina -- had believed in a strong central government. But he had become a strong supporter of states' rights.

美國當時的副總統卡爾霍恩就來自南卡羅來納州,他一度曾主張建立一個強大的聯邦政府,但后來變成了州政府權力的堅定支持者。

Calhoun wrote a long statement against the import tax for the South Carolina legislature. In it, he developed the idea of nullification -- cancelling federal powers. He said the states had created the federal government and, therefore, the states had the greater power. He argued that the states could reject, or nullify, any act of the central government which was not constitutional. And, Calhoun said, the states should be the judge of whether an act was constitutional or not.

卡爾霍恩為南卡羅來納州議會寫了一份長篇大論的聲明。在聲明中,卡爾霍恩提出了所謂的“否定原則”。他說,聯邦政府是由各州建立的,因此,各州的權力高于聯邦??柣舳髦赋?,各州可以拒絕接受聯邦政府任何不符合憲法的政令,聯邦政府的行為是否合法,由州政府自行判斷。

Calhoun's idea was debated in the Senate by Robert Hayne of South Carolina and Daniel Webster of Massachusetts. Hayne supported nullification, and Webster opposed it. Webster said Hayne was wrong in using the words "liberty first, and union afterwards." He said they could not be separated. Said Webster: "Liberty and union, now and forever, one and inseparable."

參議院就此展開辯論。南卡羅來納州的羅伯特.海恩支持“否定原則”;麻薩諸塞州的韋伯斯特極力反對。兩人唇槍舌戰,展開了一場論戰。韋伯斯特說,海恩嘴里說的什么自由第一,聯邦第二,完全是一派胡言,二者不可分割,自由和聯邦本來就是一個共同體,不可分割,現在是如此,將來也是一樣。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

No one really knew how President Andrew Jackson felt about nullification. He made no public statement during the debate. Leaders in South Carolina developed a plan to get the president's support. They decided to hold a big dinner honoring the memory of Thomas Jefferson. Jackson agreed to be at the dinner.

沒有人知道杰克遜總統對這個問題的態度。他在辯論期間沒有發表任何公開聲明。南卡羅來納州為了得到杰克遜的支持,決定設宴紀念美國前總統托馬斯.杰斐遜。杰克遜總統同意出席。

The speeches were carefully planned. They began by praising the democratic ideas of Jefferson. Then speakers discussed Virginia's opposition to the alien and sedition laws passed by the federal government in seventeen-ninety-eight.

晚宴上的講話都是經過精心設計的。他們一上來,先是稱贊杰斐遜總統的民主理念,然后又提到了維吉尼亞州反對聯邦政府1798年通過的《外國人法》和《懲治叛亂法》的那段歷史。

Next they discussed South Carolina's opposition to the import tax. Finally, the speeches were finished. It was time for toasts. President Jackson made the first one. He stood up, raised his glass, and looked straight at John C. Calhoun. He waited for the cheering to stop. "Our union," he said, "it must be preserved."

接下來,主辦者把話題引到南卡羅來納州對進口關稅的反對。講話結束后,杰克遜總統率先祝酒。杰克遜站起身來,舉起酒杯。他雙眼直視副總統卡爾霍恩,等歡呼聲平靜下來后說,“我們的聯邦,一定要保持下去。”

VOICE TWO:

Calhoun rose with the others to drink the toast. He had not expected Jackson's opposition to nullification. His hand shook, and he spilled some of the wine from his glass.

卡爾霍恩站起身來跟大家一起干杯。他完全沒有想到,杰克遜會反對他的“否定原則”,他的手哆嗦了一下,酒灑了出來。

Calhoun was called on to make the next toast. The vice president rose slowly. "The union," he said, "next to our liberty, most dear." He waited a moment, then, continued. "May we all remember that it can only be preserved by respecting the rights of the states and by giving equally the benefits and burdens of the union."

接下來輪到卡爾霍恩祝酒了。他緩緩地站起身來說:“我們的聯邦,十分寶貴,僅次于我們的自由。”稍等片刻后,卡爾霍恩繼續說:“我們大家一定要記住,只有尊重各州的權力,讓各州平等享受聯邦的福利和負擔,聯邦才能得以保持。”

President Jackson left a few minutes later. Most of those at dinner left with him.

杰克遜幾分鐘后離席,大部分人緊隨其后。

John Eaton
John Eaton

VOICE ONE:

The nation now knew how the president felt. And the people were with him -- opposed to nullification. But the idea was not dead among the extremists of South Carolina. They were to start more trouble two years later.

不過,“否定原則”在南卡羅來納州極端主義者中間依然很有市場,兩年后死灰復燃。

Calhoun's nullification doctrine was not the only thing that divided Jackson and the vice president. Calhoun had led a campaign against the wife of Jackson's friend and secretary of war, John Eaton.

否定原則并不是杰克遜和卡爾霍恩的唯一分歧??柣舳鬟€對杰克遜的好友、戰爭部長約翰.伊頓的夫人發起攻擊。

Three members of Jackson's cabinet supported Calhoun. Mister Calhoun and the three cabinet wives would have nothing to do with Mister Eaton. Jackson saw this as a political trick to try to force Eaton from the cabinet, and make Jackson look foolish at the same time.

杰克遜內閣里的三個成員支持卡爾霍恩。這四個人的夫人都拒絕和伊頓夫人來往。杰克遜認為,這是他們的政治把戲,目的是要強迫伊頓退出內閣,讓杰克遜出丑。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The hostility between Jackson and his vice president was sharpened by a letter that was written by a member of President Monroe's cabinet. It told how Calhoun wanted Jackson arrested in eighteen-eighteen.

杰克遜和卡爾霍恩之間的敵對情緒日益加深。與此同時,前總統門羅任期內跟卡爾霍恩同事過的內閣成員威廉.克勞福德寫信告訴杰克遜,卡爾霍恩1818年的時候曾經主張逮捕杰克遜。

The letter writer, William Crawford, was in the cabinet with Calhoun. Jackson had led a military campaign into Spanish Florida and had hanged two British citizens. Calhoun proposed during a cabinet meeting that Jackson be punished. Jackson did not learn of this until eighteen-twenty-nine. Jackson wanted no further communications with Calhoun.

當時,杰克遜未經門羅總統的批準,擅自率兵進攻西班牙控制下的佛羅里達一帶,還吊死了兩個英國人??柣舳髟谝淮蝺乳w會議上建議懲罰杰克遜。杰克遜直到1829年才得知這一消息,兩人的關系因此陷入冷戰。

Several attempts were made to soften relations between Calhoun and Jackson. One of them seemed to succeed. Jackson told Secretary of State Martin van Buren that the dispute had been settled. He said the unfriendly letters that he and Calhoun sent each other would be destroyed. And he said he would invite the vice president to have dinner with him at the White House.

卡爾霍恩和杰克遜也曾試圖改善關系,而且有一次好像真是做到了。杰克遜告訴國務卿范布倫說,他跟卡爾霍恩已經冰釋前嫌,兩人會銷毀彼此間那些不友好的書信,他還準備邀請卡爾霍恩到白宮來,跟他共進晚餐。

VOICE ONE:

With the dispute ended, Calhoun thought he saw a way to destroy his rival for the presidency -- Secretary of State Martin van Buren. He decided not to destroy the letters he and Jackson sent to each other. Instead, he had a pamphlet written, using the letters. The pamphlet also contained the statement of several persons denying the Crawford charges. And, it accused Mister van Buren of using Crawford to try to split Jackson and Calhoun.

卡爾霍恩覺得,跟杰克遜關系改善后,就可以著手消滅自己將來競選總統的對手國務卿范布倫了。他決定保留跟杰克遜的書信,不把它們銷毀掉。他把這些信件作為資料,寫成了一本小冊子,里面引用了一些人的聲明,否認克勞福德的指控,并指責國務卿范布倫利用克勞福德,在杰克遜跟卡爾霍恩之間制造矛盾。

One of Calhoun's men took a copy of the pamphlet to Secretary Eaton and asked him to show it to President Jackson. He told Eaton that the pamphlet would not be published without Jackson's approval.

卡爾霍恩的部下拿著這本小冊子,交給戰爭部長伊頓,請他轉交杰克遜總統,并告訴伊頓說,沒有杰克遜的批準,他們是不會公開發行這本小冊子的。

Eaton did not show the pamphlet to Jackson and said nothing to Calhoun's men. Calhoun understood this silence to mean that Jackson did not object to the pamphlet. So he had it published and given to the public.

誰知道,伊頓并沒有把小冊子轉交給杰克遜,也沒有給卡爾霍恩的部下任何答復??柣舳饕詾?,沉默就意味著杰克遜的默許,于是就大批印刷,并公開發行。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Jackson exploded when he read it. Not only had Calhoun failed to destroy the letters, he had published them. Jackson's newspaper, the Washington Globe, accused Calhoun of throwing a firebomb into the party.

杰克遜得知后火冒三丈??柣舳鞑粌H沒有銷毀兩人間的書信往來,而且還把它們公諸于眾。支持杰克遜的報紙《華盛頓環球報》指責卡爾霍恩向民主黨內投擲了一枚燃燒彈。

Jackson declared that Calhoun and his supporters had cut their own throats. Only later did Calhoun discover what had gone wrong. Eaton had not shown the pamphlet to Jackson. He had not even spoken to the president about it. This was Eaton's way of punishing those who treated his wife so badly.

杰克遜宣布,卡爾霍恩和他的支持者們是自掘墳墓??柣舳饕活^霧水,直到后來才發現,伊頓壓根兒就沒有把宣傳小冊子交給杰克遜看,甚至沒有提及此事。伊頓這樣做是為了替夫人出氣。

VOICE ONE:

Jackson continued to defend Margaret Eaton's honor. He even held a cabinet meeting on the subject. All the secretaries but John Eaton were there.

與此同時,杰克遜也繼續捍衛伊頓夫人的榮譽。他甚至召開內閣會議討論此事。除伊頓本人以外,所有內閣成員都參加了這次會議。

Jackson told them that he did not want to interfere in their private lives. But, he said it seemed that their families were trying to get others to have nothing to do with Mister Eaton. "I will not part with John Eaton," Jackson said. "And those of my cabinet who cannot harmonize with him had better withdraw. I must and I will have harmony." Jackson said any insult to Eaton would be an insult to himself. Either work with Eaton or resign. There were no resignations.

杰克遜告訴他們說,他不想干涉內閣成員的私生活,但是他發現,他們幾位的家庭好像串通一起,孤立伊頓。杰克遜說:“我是不會跟約翰.伊頓分開的。在我內閣里工作的,如果不能跟伊頓和睦相處,最好盡快辭職。我必須,也一定會實現內閣的和睦。”杰克遜說,對伊頓的侮辱,就是對他的侮辱,要么跟伊頓合作,要么索性辭職。結果沒有人辭職。

VOICE TWO:

But the problem got no better. Many people just would not accept Margaret Eaton as their social equal. Mister van Buren saw that the problem was hurting Jackson deeply. But he knew better than to propose to Jackson that he ask for Secretary Eaton's resignation. He already had heard Jackson say that he would resign as president before he would desert his friend Eaton.

但是情況并未出現好轉。很多人無論如何也無法平等地接受伊頓夫人。范布倫意識到,這個問題已經對杰克遜造成了沉重的傷害,但是他清楚地知道,不能建議杰克遜讓伊頓辭職,因為杰克遜已經明確表示,他寧可辭去總統的職務,也不會背信棄義。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Stewart Spencer. Next week, we discuss Martin van Buren's plan to solve the dispute between Andrew Jackson and John C. Calhoun. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs can be found, along with historical images, at www.666321.live.

Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

____________

This is program # 58 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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作者:Alumni
the contradiction between Andrew Jackson and John C. Calhoun,vice president, is just like water and fire.
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