官方APP下載:英語全能特訓(微信小程序版,支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
創辦于2003年
UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
  Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
公眾微信服務號
英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
客服短信:18913948480
客服郵箱:[email protected]
初級VIP會員
全站英語學習資料下載。
¥98元/12個月

#59: Bank of the United States Worries Jackson

閱讀次數:


VIP會員專享下載:(非VIP會員無權下載!如果想下載,但還不是VIP會員,請點此訂購
下載方式:使用鼠標右鍵(注意是鼠標右鍵?。c擊下面的MP3音頻/MP4視頻鏈接,然后選擇“另存為…”。
MP3節目錄音(英文版) MP3節目錄音(英文版)  MP3節目錄音(中文版) MP3節目錄音(中文版) 
文章正文
同步字幕

Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

Andrew Jackson served as president of the United States from eighteen twenty-nine to eighteen thirty-seven. His first term seemed to be mostly a political battle with Vice President John C. Calhoun.

安德魯.杰克遜在1829年到1837年期間,連任了兩屆美國總統。他的第一個任期主要圍繞著跟副總統卡爾霍恩的政治斗爭展開。

Calhoun wanted to be the next president. Jackson believed his secretary of state, Martin Van Buren, would be a better president. And Van Buren wanted the job. He won the president's support partly because of his help in settling a serious political dispute.

卡爾霍恩想繼承杰克遜的總統大位,但是杰克遜認為,國務卿馬丁.范布倫才是更理想的總統人選。范布倫本人也想當總統。他幫助杰克遜妥善處理了一樁嚴重的政治糾紛,并因而贏得了杰克遜的支持。

This week in our series, Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant continue the story of Andrew Jackson and his presidency.

Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson

VOICE ONE:

President Jackson's cabinet was in great disorder. Vice President Calhoun was trying to force out Secretary of War John Eaton. Eaton would not resign, and the president would not dismiss him.

杰克遜的第一屆內閣里矛盾重重。副總統卡爾霍恩想把戰爭部長約翰.伊頓趕走,但是伊頓不肯辭職,杰克遜總統也不愿意解除他的職務。

Van Buren designed a plan to gain Eaton's resignation. One morning, as Jackson discussed his cabinet problems, Van Buren said: "There is only one thing, general, that will bring you peace -- my resignation."

范布倫因此設計了一個計謀。一天早晨,杰克遜談到內閣矛盾的時候,范布倫說,“只有一件事情能給你帶來平靜,那就是我的辭職。”

"Never," said Jackson.

杰克遜回答說,“絕對不行。”

Van Buren explained how his resignation would solve a number of Jackson's political problems. Jackson did not want to let Van Buren go. But the next day, he told Van Buren that he would never stop any man who wished to leave.

范布倫解釋說,如果他辭職,杰克遜面對的一系列政治難題就會迎刃而解。杰克遜不想失去范布倫,但是第二天,他還是告訴范布倫說,他不會阻止任何去意已定的人。

VOICE TWO:

The president wanted to discuss the resignation with his other advisers. Van Buren agreed. He also said it might be best if Secretary of War Eaton were at the meeting.

杰克遜想就范布倫辭職一事跟其他人商量。范布倫表示同意,他還特別強調,最好戰爭部長伊頓也能在場。

The advisers accepted Van Buren's resignation. Then they went to Van Buren's house for dinner. On the way, Eaton said: "Gentlemen, this is all wrong. I am the one who should resign!" Van Buren said Eaton must be sure of such a move. Eaton was sure.

大家經過討論,同意接受范布倫的辭職,隨后一起去范布倫家吃飯。在前往范布倫家的途中,伊頓忽然說,“紳士們,這一切都是錯的。應該辭職的是我。”范布倫告訴伊頓,一定要考慮清楚。伊頓回答說,我已經想明白了。

VOICE ONE:

President Jackson accepted Eaton's decision as he had accepted Van Buren's. But he was unwilling to give up completely the services of his two friends. He named Van Buren to be minister to Britain. And he told Eaton that he would help him get elected again to the Senate.

杰克遜同樣接受了伊頓的辭呈,但是他不愿意失去兩個好朋友的扶持,因此任命范布倫為美國駐英大使,并且告訴伊頓說,他會幫助他重新選進參議院。

Jackson then dismissed the remaining members of his cabinet. He was free to organize a new cabinet that would be loyal to him and not to Vice President Calhoun.

杰克遜隨即解散內閣,重新組建了一個忠實于自己,而不是副總統卡爾霍恩的新內閣。

Even with a new cabinet, Jackson still faced the problem of nullification. South Carolina politicians, led by Calhoun, continued to claim that states had the right to reject -- nullify -- a federal law which they believed was bad.

盡管如此,杰克遜還是要處理“否定原則”的難題。以副總統卡爾霍恩為首的南卡羅來納州的政客們堅持說,各州有權否定聯邦法律。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Jackson asked a congressman from South Carolina to give a message to the nullifiers in his state. "Tell them," Jackson said, "that they can talk and write resolutions and print threats to their hearts' content. But if one drop of blood is shed there in opposition to the laws of the United States, I will hang the first man I can get my hands on to the first tree I can find."

杰克遜讓來自南卡羅來納州的一位國會議員轉告他們那里的“否定主義者”。杰克遜說,“告訴他們,他們可以暢所欲言,隨便發表決議、提出威脅,但是如果他們那里因為反對聯邦法律而流一滴血,我就要在第一棵我能看到的樹上吊死我能抓到的第一個人。”

Someone questioned if Jackson would go so far as to hang someone. A man answered: "When Jackson begins to talk about hanging, they can begin to look for the ropes."

難道杰克遜真會為此把人吊死嗎?有人回答說,“如果杰克遜已經說到了絞刑,那就可以開始尋找繩子了。”

VOICE ONE:

The nullifiers held a majority of seats in South Carolina's legislature at that time. They called a special convention. Within five days, convention delegates approved a declaration of nullification.

當時,支持“否定原則”的人在南卡羅來納州議會里占多數。他們召集了一次特別大會,議會代表在五天內就通過了一項“否定宣言”。

They declared that the federal import tax laws of eighteen twenty-eight and eighteen thirty-two were unconstitutional, and therefore, cancelled. They said citizens of South Carolina need not pay the tax. The nullifiers also declared that if the federal government tried to use force against South Carolina, then the state would withdraw from the union and form its own independent government.

他們宣稱,1828年和1832年有關進口稅的聯邦法律違憲,因此被取消。他們宣布,南卡羅來納州的居民不需要繳納進口稅,如果聯邦政府試圖動用武力強制執行的話,南卡羅來納州就會退出聯邦,成立自己的獨立政府。

VOICE TWO:

President Jackson answered with a declaration of his own. Jackson said America's constitution formed a government, not just an association of sovereign states. South Carolina had no right to cancel a federal law or to withdraw from the union. Disunion by force was treason. Jackson said: "The laws of the United States must be enforced. This is my duty under the Constitution. I have no other choice."

杰克遜總統毫不示弱。他宣布,美國政府是根據憲法組建的,這個政府不是享有主權的各州的結盟。因此,南卡羅來納州無權廢除聯邦法律,也無權退出聯邦,武力退出屬于叛國行為。杰克遜說,“美國的法律必需執行,這是憲法賦予我的職責,我別無選擇。”

VOICE ONE:

Jackson did more. He asked Congress to give him the power to use the Army and Navy to enforce the laws of the land. Congress did so. Jackson sent eight warships to the port of Charleston, South Carolina, and soldiers to federal military bases in the state.

杰克遜要求國會授予他調遣陸軍和海軍執行聯邦法律的權力,國會批準了他的請求。杰克遜隨即派遣八艘戰艦前往南卡羅來納州的查爾斯頓,并派兵進駐南卡羅來納州里的聯邦軍事基地。

While preparing to use force, Jackson offered hope for a peaceful settlement. In his yearly message to Congress, he spoke of reducing the federal import tax which hurt the sale of southern cotton overseas. He said the import tax could be reduced, because the national debt would soon be paid.

武力準備的同時,杰克遜也給了南方和平解決糾紛的希望。他在向國會發表的年度講話中提出,進口稅會傷害南方棉花的出口,因此政府可能會降低進口稅,而且國債不久就要付清了。

VOICE TWO:

Congress passed a compromise bill to end the import tax by eighteen forty-two. South Carolina's congressmen accepted the compromise. And the state's legislature called another convention. This time, the delegates voted to end the nullification act they had approved earlier.

國會通過了一項妥協法案,定于1842年終止進口稅。南卡羅來納州的國會議員們接受了這項妥協,并投票決定取消他們早先通過的否定法案。

They did not, however, give up their belief in the idea of nullification. The idea continued to be a threat to the American union until the issue was settled in the Civil War which began in eighteen sixty-one.

然而,他們并沒有徹底放棄“否定原則”的理念。這種看法繼續對美國的國家團結構成威脅,這種情況一直持續到1861年開始的美國南北戰爭。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

While President Jackson battled the nullifiers, another struggle began. This time, it was Jackson against the Bank of the United States. Congress provided money to establish the Bank of the United States in eighteen sixteen. It gave the bank a charter to do business for twenty years. The bank was permitted to use the government's money to make loans. For this, the bank paid the government one and one-half million dollars a year. The bank was run by private citizens.

杰克遜總統跟南方的“否定主義者”做斗爭的同時,另外一場斗爭也拉開了戰幕。杰克遜這次的對手是美國銀行。美國國會1816年撥款成立了美國銀行,特許經營二十年。美國銀行由私人經營,但是有權動用國庫的錢發行貸款,為此,美國銀行每年向政府繳納150萬美元。

VOICE TWO:

The Bank of the United States was strong, because of the great amount of government money invested in it. The bank's paper notes were almost as good as gold. They came close to being a national money system.

聯邦政府的投資,讓美國銀行實力雄厚。美國銀行發行的票據象金子一樣值錢。美國銀行的業務規模已經接近了一個完整的國家貨幣體系。

The bank opened offices in many parts of the country. As it grew, it became more powerful. By making it easy or difficult for businesses to borrow money, the bank could control the economy of almost any part of the United States.

美國銀行在各地開辦分行。由于掌握了貸款與否的大權,美國銀行可以控制幾乎所有地區的經濟。

VOICE ONE:

Nicholas Biddle
Nicholas Biddle

During Jackson's presidency, the Bank of the United States was headed by Nicholas Biddle. Biddle was an extremely intelligent man. He had completed studies at the University of Pennsylvania when he was only thirteen years old. When he was eighteen, he was sent to Paris as secretary to the American minister.

杰克遜任職期間,美國銀行行長是尼克拉斯.比德爾。比德爾是個奇才,13歲從賓夕法尼亞大學畢業,18歲就被任命美國駐巴黎大使的秘書。

Biddle worked on financial details of the purchase of the Louisiana territory from France. After America's war against Britain in eighteen twelve, Biddle helped establish the Bank of the United States. He became its president when he was only thirty-seven years old.

VOICE TWO:

Biddle clearly understood his power as president of the Bank of the United States. In his mind, the government had no right to interfere in any way with the bank's business. President Jackson did not agree. Nor was he very friendly toward the bank. Not many westerners were. They did not trust the bank's paper money. They wanted to deal in gold and silver.

比德爾清楚地知道自己作為美國銀行行長的權力。在他看來,聯邦政府無權干涉銀行業務。但是杰克遜總統不這么看,他對美國銀行的態度也很不友好。美國西部大多數人都不信任美國銀行,不信任美國銀行的紙票據。他們還是希望用金幣和銀幣進行交易。

Jackson criticized the bank in each of his yearly messages to Congress. He said the Bank of the United States was dangerous to the liberty of the people. He said the bank could build up or pull down political parties through loans to politicians. Jackson opposed giving the bank a new charter. He proposed that a new bank be formed as part of the Treasury Department.

杰克遜每年向國會發表講話都會批評美國銀行。他說,美國銀行對人們的自由構成威脅。他還說,美國銀行可以通過向政客的貸款,建立或摧毀政黨。杰克遜反對延長美國銀行的特許經營權,并建議在財政部下面成立一家新銀行。

A political drawing from 1832 about the Bank of the United States. President Jackson is shown as a cat defending the United States from rats that steal.
A political drawing from 1832 about the Bank of the United States. President Jackson is shown as a cat defending the United States from rats that steal.

VOICE ONE:

The president urged Congress to consider the future of the bank long before the bank's charter was to end. Then, if the charter was rejected, the bank could close its business slowly over several years. This would prevent serious economic problems for the country.

杰克遜總統敦促國會在美國銀行特許經營權結束前提早考慮這家銀行的前途。如果特許經營權宣告結束,美國銀行就要在幾年的時間內按部就班地停止各項業務,以免引發嚴重的經濟問題。

Many of President Jackson's advisers believed he should say nothing about the bank until after the presidential election of eighteen thirty-two. They feared he might lose the votes of those who supported the bank. Jackson accepted their advice. He agreed not to act on the issue, if bank president Biddle would not request renewal of the charter before the election.

杰克遜的很多軍師都認為,在1832年總統大選前,杰克遜最好不要在這個問題上多說話。他們擔心,杰克遜會失去那些支持美國銀行的人的選票。杰克遜接受了他們的建議,同意不在這個問題上采取行動,但前提條件是美國銀行行長比德爾不在大選前提出延長特許經營權的要求。

Biddle agreed. Then he changed his mind. He asked Congress for a new charter in January eighteen thirty-two. The request became a hot political issue in the presidential campaign.

比德爾起初表示同意,但后來又改變了主意。他于1832年1月向國會提出了新特許證書的申請,這一要求成為大選期間的一個熱點政治議題。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. Your narrators were Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs can be found, along with historical images, at www.666321.live. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

____________

This is program # 59 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

網友的學習評論(1條):
作者:Alumni
wonder child ? if there has been, this Nicholas Biddle was. he finished a university at age of 13.
版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
網站備案:蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
廣播臺
中国北京福彩中心地址 股票的k线图基本知 北京体彩11选5走势图 30选5开奖结果今天双色球开奖结果 湖北11选5任选三遗漏 全年杀一波 516游戏棋牌 _百家乐投注技巧 西甲联赛球队 分类导航网站怎么赚钱 真人二人麻将游戏