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#94: South Carolina Leaves Union, Tensions Increase

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

South Carolina withdrew from the United States on December twentieth, eighteen sixty. The state seceded because a Republican, Abraham Lincoln, had been elected president. The Republicans were a new party, and Lincoln was the first to be elected president. They wanted to stop slavery from spreading into the western territories.

1860年12月20號,南卡羅來納州宣布退出聯邦,因為共和黨人亞伯拉罕.林肯當選了美國總統。共和黨成立不久,林肯是第一個共和黨籍總統。共和黨反對奴隸制向西部新增領土擴張。

Southern states believed they had a constitutional right to take property -- including slaves -- anywhere. They also feared that any interference with slavery would end their way of life.

南方人認為,根據憲法,他們有權把包括奴隸在內的財產帶到任何地方去。南方人還擔心,北方人插手蓄奴制度,終將毀掉他們的生活方式。

This week in our series, Frank Oliver and Larry West tell what happened after South Carolina left the Union.

VOICE ONE:

South Carolina faced several problems after it seceded. The most serious problem was what to do with property owned by the federal government. There were several United States forts in and around the Port of Charleston. Fort Moultrie had fewer than seventy soldiers. Castle Pinckney had only one. And Fort Sumter -- which was still being built -- had none.

南卡羅來納州退出聯邦后,面臨著一些問題,其中最棘手的是如何處理聯邦政府的財產。當時,查爾斯頓港附近有三個聯邦所有的城堡,摩特里堡有不到七十名士兵把守,平克尼堡有一名士兵,薩姆特堡仍在興建當中,尚未駐軍。

The commander of the forts asked for more men. Without them, he said, he could not defend the forts. The army refused. It told the commander to defend the forts as best he could. He was told to do nothing that might cause South Carolina to attack. If South Carolina attacked, or planned to attack, then he could move his men into the fort that would be easiest to defend. That would probably be the new one, Fort Sumter.

城堡指揮官要求增兵防守,遭到了軍方的拒絕。這位指揮官被告知,現有兵力,盡力而為,不要采取任何刺激南卡羅來納州的行動,如果南卡羅來納州武裝力量主動進攻,或是準備進攻,就率兵進駐最易防守的城堡---新建的薩姆特堡。

VOICE TWO:

A cartoon making fun of both South Carolina Governor Francis Pickens and President Buchanan over the Fort Sumter issue
A cartoon making fun of both South Carolina Governor Francis Pickens and President Buchanan over the Fort Sumter issue

The governor of South Carolina planned to stop any movement of federal troops. He ordered state soldiers to stop every boat in Charleston Harbor. They were to permit no United States troops to reach Fort Sumter. If any boat carrying troops refused to stop, the state soldiers were to sink it and seize the fort.

南卡羅來納州州長也積極防范聯邦部隊的任何部署。他下令南卡羅來納州的士兵,攔截所有進出查爾斯頓港的船只,不讓一個聯邦士兵進駐薩姆特堡。如果運兵船拒絕???,南卡羅來納州的士兵就可以擊沉兵船,奪取城堡。

Six days after South Carolina seceded from the Union, the commander of Charleston's forts decided to move his men to Fort Sumter. They would move as soon as it was dark. The federal troops crossed the port in small boats. The state soldiers did not see them.

南卡羅來納州退出聯邦六天后,查爾斯頓的聯邦部隊指揮官決定率兵進入薩姆特堡,天一黑就走。他們分批,乘小船行動,結果躲過了南卡羅來納州士兵的耳目,安全抵達薩姆特堡。

The governor was furious when he learned what had happened. He demanded that the federal troops leave Fort Sumter. The commander said they would stay.

南卡羅來納州州長得知這一消息后,大發雷霆,要求聯邦士兵離開薩姆特堡,遭到聯邦部隊指揮官的拒絕。

The governor then ordered state soldiers to seize the other two forts in Charleston Harbor. And he ordered the state flag raised over all other federal property in the city.

南卡羅來納州州長又下令州里的士兵奪取查爾斯頓港口附近的另外兩座城堡,并在查爾斯頓所有聯邦屬地和財產上懸掛州旗。

(MUSIC)

James Buchanan
James Buchanan

VOICE ONE:

President James Buchanan, who would leave office in just a few months, was forced to deal with the situation. His cabinet was deeply divided on the issue. The southerners wanted him to recognize South Carolina and order all federal troops out of Charleston Harbor. The northerners said he must not give up any federal property or rights.

還有幾個月就要卸任的布坎南總統被迫處理這個爛攤子。在這個問題上,內閣存在嚴重分歧。內閣里的南方人要求布坎南承認南卡羅來納的獨立,下令聯邦部隊撤離查爾斯頓。內閣里的北方人則表示,不能放棄任何聯邦財產或權利。

The president agreed to meet with three representatives from South Carolina. They had come to Washington to negotiate the future of federal property in their state. The attorney general said the meeting was a mistake.

布坎南總統同意跟三名南卡羅來納州的代表見面。這三個人來華盛頓目的是要討論如何處理南卡羅來納州境內的聯邦財產。美國聯邦司法部長覺得,這次會面是一個錯誤。

"These gentlemen," he said, "claim to be ambassadors of South Carolina. This is foolish. They cannot be ambassadors. They are lawbreakers, traitors, and should be arrested. You cannot negotiate with them."

他說,“這幾位先生自稱是南卡羅來納州的大使,這太荒唐了,他們不是什么大使,而是罪犯,是叛國賊,應該把他們抓起來,不能跟他們談判”。

VOICE TWO:

The attorney general and the secretary of state threatened to resign if President Buchanan gave in to South Carolina's demands. The president finally agreed not to give in. He said he would keep federal troops in Charleston Harbor. And he said Fort Sumter would be defended against all hostile action. On the last day of eighteen sixty, he ordered two hundred troops and extra supplies sent to Fort Sumter.

司法部長和國務卿都威脅說,如果布坎南接受南卡羅來納的要求,他們就辭職,布坎南只好保證,絕不讓步,保留查爾斯頓港口的聯邦駐軍,保衛薩姆特堡不受攻擊。1860年除夕,布坎南下令向薩姆特堡增派兩百名士兵,運送額外供給。

The War Department wanted to keep the operation secret. So the troops and supplies were put on a fast civilian ship, instead of a slower warship. It was thought that a civilian ship could get into Charleston Harbor before state forces could act.

戰爭部為保密,決定不用慢吞吞的戰艦,而是用速度更快的民用船只運輸士兵和供給,避免被守衛在查爾斯頓港口的南卡羅來納州武裝力量攔截。

But a southern Senator learned of the operation. He warned the governor of South Carolina. When the ship arrived in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina soldiers were waiting.

然而,一位南方參議員聽到了風聲,私下里通知了南卡羅來納州州長。運輸船抵達查爾斯頓港時,南卡羅來納州的士兵已經恭候很久了。

VOICE ONE:

The soldiers lit a cannon and fired a warning shot. The ship refused to stop. Other cannons then opened fire.

南卡羅來納州的守軍放炮示警,但是運輸船拒絕停船,守軍于是向運輸船開火。

The commander of federal troops at Fort Sumter had a difficult decision to make. He had received permission to defend the fort, if attacked. But his orders said nothing about defending ships. He knew that if he opened fire, the United States and South Carolina would be at war.

薩姆特堡的指揮官必需當機立斷。他先前得到的命令是,如果受到襲擊,就要保衛薩姆特堡,但是命令里沒有提到運輸船。他很清楚,只要他下令開火,聯邦和南卡羅來納州的戰斗就打響了。

The decision was made for him. South Carolina's cannons finally hit the ship. The ship slowed, then turned back to sea. It returned north with all the troops and supplies.

VOICE TWO:

Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor
Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor

The commander of Fort Sumter sent a message to the governor of South Carolina.

薩姆特堡指揮官寫信給南卡羅來納州州長。

"Your forces," he wrote, "fired this morning on a civilian ship flying the flag of my government. Since I have not been informed that South Carolina declared war on the United States, I can only believe that this hostile act was done without your knowledge or permission. For this reason -- and only this -- I did not fire on your guns."

信中說,“你的部隊今天早上向一艘懸掛著我們政府旗幟的民用船只開火。我沒聽說南卡羅來納對美國聯邦宣戰,所以我相信,這一敵對行動并未經過你的批準。這是我唯一沒有還擊的原因”。

If, the commander said, the governor had approved the shelling, it would be an act of war. And he would be forced to close the Port of Charleston. No ship would be permitted to enter or leave.

信中還說,如果這一行動是經過州長批準的話,就屬于戰爭行動,他就要被迫關閉查爾斯頓港,不允許任何船只進出。

The governor's answer came back within hours. He said South Carolina was now independent. He said the attempt by the United States to strengthen its force at Fort Sumter was clearly an act of aggression. And he demanded that the commander surrender.

南卡羅來納州州長幾小時后就回了信。信中說,南卡羅來納已經獨立,聯邦政府試圖加強薩姆特堡兵力的做法實屬侵略行徑,他要求薩姆特堡指揮官投降。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

During the crisis over Fort Sumter, Congress tried to find a compromise that might prevent war. Lawmakers proposed a new line across the country. South of the line, slavery would be permitted. North of the line, slavery would be illegal.

面對薩姆特堡危機,國會試圖找到一個可以防止戰爭的妥協方案。國會議員建議,將國家一線分開,界線以南允許蓄奴,界線以北禁止蓄奴。

Many Republicans supported the proposal, even though the Republican Party opposed the spread of slavery into the western territories.

盡管共和黨反對奴隸制度向西部領地擴張,但是這項提案還是得到了很多國會共和黨人的支持。

One Republican, however, rejected the idea completely. He was Abraham Lincoln, who would take office as president in March. Lincoln said there could be no compromise on extending slavery. "If there is," he said, "then all our hard work is lost. If trouble comes, it is better to let it come now than at some later time."

不過,三月即將宣誓就職的下屆總統亞伯拉罕.林肯堅決反對。林肯說,在限制奴隸制度蔓延的問題上,絕對不能妥協。他說,“如果做出讓步,那我們所有的辛勤工作就都付之東流了。該來的問題遲早回來,晚來不如早來。”

VOICE TWO:

The trouble would come soon. One by one, the states of the South seceded.

林肯不幸言中,問題接踵而來。

By February first, eighteen sixty-one, six states had followed South Carolina out of the Union. A few days later, representatives from the states met in Montgomery, Alabama. Their job was to create a new nation. It would be an independent republic called the Confederate States of America.

到1861年2月1號,南方已先后有六個州步南卡羅來納州的后塵,退出了聯邦。幾天后,這些州的代表在阿拉巴馬的蒙特馬利市開會,準備成立一個新的國家,一個獨立共和國,取名美國南部邦聯。

Jefferson Davis
Jefferson Davis

The convention approved a constitution for the new nation. The document was like the Constitution of the United States, but with major changes. The southern constitution gave greater importance to the rights of states. And it said there could be no laws against slavery.

代表們通過了一部憲法,跟美國憲法很象,但又存在重大區別。南方憲法更加重視各州的權利,規定不會有任何禁止蓄奴的法律。

The convention named former United States Senator Jefferson Davis to be president of the Confederate States of America.

大會還任命美國前聯邦參議員杰斐遜.戴維斯擔任總統。

Davis did not want civil war. But he was not afraid of it. He said: "Our separation from the old Union is complete. The time for compromise has passed. Should others try to change our decision with force, they will smell southern gunpowder and feel the steel of southern swords."

戴維斯雖然不愿意看到內戰,但是也不害怕內戰的爆發。他說,“我們跟聯邦已經一刀兩斷,談判妥協的時機已去,如果別人想用武力來改變我們的決定,我們就讓他們聞聞南方人彈藥的氣味,讓他們體驗一下南方人刀劍的鋒利。”

VOICE ONE:

Jefferson Davis left his farm in Mississippi to become president of the Confederate States of America on February eleventh. On that same day, Abraham Lincoln left his home in Illinois to become president of the United States.

杰斐遜.戴維斯離開位于密西西比的莊園,2月11號宣誓就職美國南部邦聯總統。亞伯拉罕.林肯同一天離開伊利諾伊家鄉,就任美國總統。

As Lincoln got on the train that would take him to Washington, he said:

"I now leave, not knowing when -- or whether ever -- I may return. The task before me is greater than that which rested upon our first president. Without the help of God, I cannot succeed. With that assistance, I cannot fail. Let us hope that all yet will be well."

林肯登上駛往華盛頓的火車時說,“我這一去,不知道什么時候回來,也不知道會不會回來,我面對的重任比開國第一任總統所面臨的還要嚴峻。沒有上帝的幫助,我無法成功。有了上帝的幫助,我絕不會失敗。讓我們希望一切順利。”

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Frank Oliver and Larry West. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs can be found, along with historical images, at www.666321.live. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #94 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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